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Scientific and technological innovation continues to play an essential role in catalyzing the creation of new industries, spawning job growth, and improving the quality of life in the United States and throughout the world. Innovation relies, in part, on individuals possessing the knowledge, skills, creativity, and foresight to forge new paths. The National(More)
Broad regions on both sides of the solar wind termination shock are populated by high intensities of non-thermal ions and electrons. The pre-shock particles in the solar wind have been measured by the spacecraft Voyager 1 (refs 1-5) and Voyager 2 (refs 3, 6). The post-shock particles in the heliosheath have also been measured by Voyager 1 (refs 3-5). It was(More)
Voyager 1 (V1) began measuring precursor energetic ions and electrons from the heliospheric termination shock (TS) in July 2002. During the ensuing 2.5 years, average particle intensities rose as V1 penetrated deeper into the energetic particle foreshock of the TS. Throughout 2004, V1 observed even larger, fluctuating intensities of ions from 40(More)
The outer limit of the Solar System is often considered to be at the distance from the Sun where the solar wind changes from supersonic to subsonic flow. Theory predicts that a termination shock marks this boundary, with locations ranging from a few to over 100 au (1 Au approximately 1.5 x 10(8) km, the distance from Earth to the Sun). 'Pick-up ions' that(More)
The Galilean satellites of Jupiter-Io (J1), Europa (J2), Ganymede (J3), and Callisto (J4)-are embedded in the intense ion and electron fluxes of the Jovian magnetosphere. The effect of these particles on the icy surfaces of the outer three satellites depends on the fluxes and the efficiency of the sputtering of water ice by such particles. Recent laboratory(More)
Recent Ulysses observations from the Sun's equator to the poles reveal fundamental properties of the three-dimensional heliosphere at the maximum in solar activity. The heliospheric magnetic field originates from a magnetic dipole oriented nearly perpendicular to, instead of nearly parallel to, the Sun's rotation axis. Magnetic fields, solar wind, and(More)
An overview of historical and contemporary impacts of the solar and geospace environments on communications systems. Abstract In the last century and one-half, since the invention and deployment of the first electrical communication system – the electrical telegraph, the variety of communications technologies that can be affected by natural processes(More)
We review the state of current understanding of the potential for interference and interruption of service of wireless communications systems due to solar radio bursts. There have been several reported instances of an enhanced rate of dropped cell-phone calls during solar bursts, and the design of current base station systems make them vulnerable to(More)
The Magnetospheric Imaging Instrument (MIMI) onboard the Cassini spacecraft observed the saturnian magnetosphere from January 2004 until Saturn orbit insertion (SOI) on 1 July 2004. The MIMI sensors observed frequent energetic particle activity in interplanetary space for several months before SOI. When the imaging sensor was switched to its energetic(More)
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