Louis J. Lanzerotti

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The outer limit of the Solar System is often considered to be at the distance from the Sun where the solar wind changes from supersonic to subsonic flow. Theory predicts that a termination shock marks this boundary, with locations ranging from a few to over 100 au (1 Au approximately 1.5 x 10(8) km, the distance from Earth to the Sun). 'Pick-up ions' that(More)
The low-energy charged-particle (LECP) instrument on Voyager 2 measured lowenergy electrons and ions near and within the magnetosphere of Uranus. Initial analysis of the LECP measurements has revealed the following. (i) The magnetospheric particle population consists principally of protons and electrons having energies to at least 4 and 1.2 megaelectron(More)
Ices such as water, carbon dioxide, and methane are now known to be pervasive constituents of the solar system and probably of the interstellar medium as well. Many of these ices and ice-covered surfaces are exposed to bombardment by the energetic ions of space. Laboratory experiments have been carried out to study the effects of such bombardment.(More)
Voyager 1 (V1) began measuring precursor energetic ions and electrons from the heliospheric termination shock (TS) in July 2002. During the ensuing 2.5 years, average particle intensities rose as V1 penetrated deeper into the energetic particle foreshock of the TS. Throughout 2004, V1 observed even larger, fluctuating intensities of ions from 40(More)
The Magnetospheric Imaging Instrument (MIMI) onboard the Cassini spacecraft observed the saturnian magnetosphere from January 2004 until Saturn orbit insertion (SOI) on 1 July 2004. The MIMI sensors observed frequent energetic particle activity in interplanetary space for several months before SOI. When the imaging sensor was switched to its energetic(More)
The Galilean satellites of Jupiter-Io (J1), Europa (J2), Ganymede (J3), and Callisto (J4)-are embedded in the intense ion and electron fluxes of the Jovian magnetosphere. The effect of these particles on the icy surfaces of the outer three satellites depends on the fluxes and the efficiency of the sputtering of water ice by such particles. Recent laboratory(More)
Recent Ulysses observations from the Sun's equator to the poles reveal fundamental properties of the three-dimensional heliosphere at the maximum in solar activity. The heliospheric magnetic field originates from a magnetic dipole oriented nearly perpendicular to, instead of nearly parallel to, the Sun's rotation axis. Magnetic fields, solar wind, and(More)
We review the state of current understanding of the potential for interference and interruption of service of wireless communications systems due to solar radio bursts. There have been several reported instances of an enhanced rate of dropped cell-phone calls during solar bursts, and the design of current base station systems make them vulnerable to(More)
An overview of historical and contemporary impacts of the solar and geospace environments on communications systems. Abstract In the last century and one-half, since the invention and deployment of the first electrical communication system – the electrical telegraph, the variety of communications technologies that can be affected by natural processes(More)