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Acutely stressful situations can disrupt behavior and deplete brain norepinephrine and dopamine, catecholaminergic neurotransmitters. In animals, administration of tyrosine, a food constituent and precursor of the catecholamines, reduces these behavioral and neurochemical deficits. Using a double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover design we investigated(More)
Personal anecdotes suggest that ascent to high altitude can cause mood changes such as depression, apathy, and drowsiness. Observed behaviors at high altitude indicate that people can become more euphoric, irritable, or argumentative. Since there are few systematic and quantitative studies assessing the effects of altitude on mood, this study compared moods(More)
BACKGROUND We hypothesized that the multiple layers of protective clothing (PC) of a Chemical Defense Uniform (CDU) with body armor (BA), and load bearing equipment (LBE) impose an external impedance on breathing mechanics in addition to that caused by the chemical-biological protective mask (CB mask). METHODS We measured the effects of wearing the CDU(More)
Altitude exposures above 3,000 m produce changes in symptoms, moods, and cognitive/motor performance of unacclimatized individuals and should produce graded effects on these parameters as elevation and duration are increased. This study examined effects on these parameters as a function of altitude level and duration of exposure by administering(More)
Ascents above 4,000 m adversely affect symptoms, moods, and performance and cause acute mountain sickness (AMS). It is assumed that individuals afflicted with AMS will be more susceptible to changes in these other parameters; however, previous studies have suggested that their time courses are different. This investigation analyzed the relationships between(More)
Network-centric warfare's (NCW) information-rich systems involving sophisticated sensors, tracking systems, smart weapons, and enhanced digital communications threaten to overload combatants with voluminous amounts of data. It is unclear whether warfighters will perceive such extensive data as actionable information to which they will respond accurately in(More)
Cognitive function at simulated altitude was investigated in a repeated-measures, within-subject study of performance by seven volunteers in a hypobaric chamber, in which atmospheric pressure was systematically lowered over a period of 40 d to finally reach a pressure equivalent to 8,845 m, the approximate height of Mount Everest. The portable cognitive(More)
Studies of exhaustive exercise on marksmanship are inconclusive and have not measured trigger pull latencies (LAT) nor considered impact of added torso loads. This study examined the impact of exhaustive whole-body exercise and torso loading on accuracy, precision, and latency during a marksmanship test. Twelve men lifted a 20.5-kg box on to a 1.55-m high(More)