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OBJECTIVE Axonal degeneration is the likely cause of disease progression in multiple sclerosis (MS). Our previous results indicated that neuron-specific N-acetylaspartate (NAA) is a candidate CSF biomarker for disease progression in MS. The aim of this study was to explore the potential of NAA as an early biomarker of axonal damage in MS. Next, we wanted to(More)
The present study aims to investigate: a) the relationship between force and mean power frequency of the EMG, and b) how the distance between surface electrodes influences the mean power frequency. The study consisted of three parts: 1) a gradually increasing contraction upto 100% MVC, 2) contractions performed at 5 different levels from 20% upto 100% MVC(More)
The myelination of axons by oligodendrocytes has been suggested to be modulated by experience, which could mediate neural plasticity by optimizing the performance of the circuitry. We have assessed the dynamics of oligodendrocyte generation and myelination in the human brain. The number of oligodendrocytes in the corpus callosum is established in childhood(More)
BACKGROUND Natalizumab affects systemic cytokine expressions and clinical course in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). We analyzed levels of inflammatory cytokines in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), levels of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 and osteopontin (OPN) in CSF, and clinical outcome(More)
Using the ImmunoChip custom genotyping array, we analyzed 14,498 subjects with multiple sclerosis and 24,091 healthy controls for 161,311 autosomal variants and identified 135 potentially associated regions (P < 1.0 × 10(-4)). In a replication phase, we combined these data with previous genome-wide association study (GWAS) data from an independent 14,802(More)
Nitric oxide (NO) is formed as a consequence of induction of the iNOS enzyme during inflammatory disorders. To investigate NO production in multiple sclerosis (MS), we determined the concentrations of its oxidation products (NOx) in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and plasma of 61 MS patients. The patients were divided into three groups on the basis of their(More)
There is a long history of research into body fluid biomarkers in neurodegenerative and neuroinflammatory diseases. However, only a few biomarkers in CSF are being used in clinical practice. One of the most critical factors in CSF biomarker research is the inadequate powering of studies because of the lack of sufficient samples that can be obtained in(More)
Nitric oxide is formed from L-arginine by a family of enzymes: nitric oxide synthase (NOS). The inducible nitric oxide synthase is activated by cytokines and it has been suggested that activation of the enzyme gives rise to neurotoxic levels of reactive nitrogen oxides. This enzyme has been shown to be localized in multiple sclerosis (MS) lesions but the(More)
Multiple sclerosis is an inflammatory disease of the central nervous system characterized by inflammation, demyelination, axonal degeneration and accumulation of neurological disability. Previously, we demonstrated that stem cells constitute a possible endogenous source for remyelination. We now addressed the question of whether neurogenesis can occur in(More)
Hypothesising that systemically and intrathecally produced nitric oxide might play different roles in the EAE pathogenesis, we administered the NOS inhibitor N-nitro-methyl-L-arginine-ester intrathecally or systemically via osmotic minipumps to DA rats with MOG induced EAE. We demonstrate an protective effect of the NOS inhibitor on EAE severity, the extent(More)