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The myelination of axons by oligodendrocytes has been suggested to be modulated by experience, which could mediate neural plasticity by optimizing the performance of the circuitry. We have assessed the dynamics of oligodendrocyte generation and myelination in the human brain. The number of oligodendrocytes in the corpus callosum is established in childhood(More)
Using the ImmunoChip custom genotyping array, we analyzed 14,498 subjects with multiple sclerosis and 24,091 healthy controls for 161,311 autosomal variants and identified 135 potentially associated regions (P < 1.0 × 10(-4)). In a replication phase, we combined these data with previous genome-wide association study (GWAS) data from an independent 14,802(More)
Nitric oxide (NO) is formed as a consequence of induction of the iNOS enzyme during inflammatory disorders. To investigate NO production in multiple sclerosis (MS), we determined the concentrations of its oxidation products (NOx) in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and plasma of 61 MS patients. The patients were divided into three groups on the basis of their(More)
Multiple sclerosis is an inflammatory disease of the central nervous system characterized by inflammation, demyelination, axonal degeneration and accumulation of neurological disability. Previously, we demonstrated that stem cells constitute a possible endogenous source for remyelination. We now addressed the question of whether neurogenesis can occur in(More)
The inflammatory response is thought to be important for secondary damage following traumatic brain injury (TBI). The inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) isoform is a mediator in inflammatory reactions and may catalyze substantial synthesis of NO in the injured brain. This study was undertaken to analyze neuronal degeneration and survival, cellular(More)
In multiple sclerosis, the central nervous system is lesioned through invasion of plaque-forming inflammatory cells, primarily contributing to immune attack of myelin and oligodendrocytes. In this report we address the possible activation and differentiation of central nervous system stem cells following such immunological insults in a well-characterized(More)
PURPOSE Cells in the ependymal region in the adult central nervous system (CNS) have been found to possess neural progenitor cell (NPC) like features including capacity for generating new neurons and glia in response to injury and inflammatory disease. Whether these cells are activated after a peripheral nerve injury has not previously been extensively(More)
Hypothesising that systemically and intrathecally produced nitric oxide might play different roles in the EAE pathogenesis, we administered the NOS inhibitor N-nitro-methyl-L-arginine-ester intrathecally or systemically via osmotic minipumps to DA rats with MOG induced EAE. We demonstrate an protective effect of the NOS inhibitor on EAE severity, the extent(More)
Neural progenitor cells (NPCs) have regenerative capabilities that are activated during inflammation. We aimed at elucidating how NPCs, with special focus on the spinal cord-derived NPCs (SC-NPCs), are affected by chronic inflammation modeled by experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). NPCs derived from the subventricular zone (SVZ-NPCs) were also(More)
The Karolinska Institutet 200-year anniversary symposium on injuries to the spinal cord and peripheral nervous system gathered expertise in the spinal cord, spinal nerve, and peripheral nerve injury field spanning from molecular prerequisites for nerve regeneration to clinical methods in nerve repair and rehabilitation. The topics presented at the meeting(More)