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Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic, inflammatory, demyelinating disease of the CNS, most frequently starting with a series of bouts, each followed by complete remission and then a secondary, progressive phase during which the neurological deficit increases steadily. The underlying molecular mechanisms responsible for disease progression are still unclear.(More)
OBJECTIVE Axonal degeneration is the likely cause of disease progression in multiple sclerosis (MS). Our previous results indicated that neuron-specific N-acetylaspartate (NAA) is a candidate CSF biomarker for disease progression in MS. The aim of this study was to explore the potential of NAA as an early biomarker of axonal damage in MS. Next, we wanted to(More)
Using the ImmunoChip custom genotyping array, we analyzed 14,498 subjects with multiple sclerosis and 24,091 healthy controls for 161,311 autosomal variants and identified 135 potentially associated regions (P < 1.0 × 10(-4)). In a replication phase, we combined these data with previous genome-wide association study (GWAS) data from an independent 14,802(More)
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effect of a single injection of 500 U of botulinum toxin A (BTX-A; Dysport) on use of oral rescue medication, bladder compliance, continence and quality of life in a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study in patients with incontinence due to neurogenic detrusor overactivity. As this group of patients often have severe(More)
Adult neural stem cells (NSCs) are believed to facilitate CNS repair and tissue regeneration. However, it is not yet clear how these cells are influenced when the cellular environment is modified during neurotrauma or neuroinflammatory conditions. In this study, we determine how different proinflammatory cytokines modulate the expression of TLR2 and TLR4 in(More)
Regeneration of cells in the central nervous system is a process that might be affected during neurological disease and trauma. Because nitric oxide (NO) and its derivatives are powerful mediators in the inflammatory cascade, we have investigated the effects of pathophysiological concentrations of NO on neurogenesis, gliogenesis, and the expression of(More)
T cell Ig- and mucin-domain-containing molecules (TIMs) comprise a recently described family of molecules expressed on T cells. TIM-3 has been shown to be expressed on murine Th1 cell clones and has been implicated in the pathogenesis of Th1-driven experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. In contrast, association of TIM-1 polymorphisms to Th2-related(More)
The myelination of axons by oligodendrocytes has been suggested to be modulated by experience, which could mediate neural plasticity by optimizing the performance of the circuitry. We have assessed the dynamics of oligodendrocyte generation and myelination in the human brain. The number of oligodendrocytes in the corpus callosum is established in childhood(More)
The present study aims to investigate: a) the relationship between force and mean power frequency of the EMG, and b) how the distance between surface electrodes influences the mean power frequency. The study consisted of three parts: 1) a gradually increasing contraction upto 100% MVC, 2) contractions performed at 5 different levels from 20% upto 100% MVC(More)
There is a long history of research into body fluid biomarkers in neurodegenerative and neuroinflammatory diseases. However, only a few biomarkers in CSF are being used in clinical practice. One of the most critical factors in CSF biomarker research is the inadequate powering of studies because of the lack of sufficient samples that can be obtained in(More)