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OBJECTIVE Axonal degeneration is the likely cause of disease progression in multiple sclerosis (MS). Our previous results indicated that neuron-specific N-acetylaspartate (NAA) is a candidate CSF biomarker for disease progression in MS. The aim of this study was to explore the potential of NAA as an early biomarker of axonal damage in MS. Next, we wanted to(More)
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic, inflammatory, demyelinating disease of the CNS, most frequently starting with a series of bouts, each followed by complete remission and then a secondary, progressive phase during which the neurological deficit increases steadily. The underlying molecular mechanisms responsible for disease progression are still unclear.(More)
There is a long history of research into body fluid biomarkers in neurodegenerative and neuroinflammatory diseases. However, only a few biomarkers in CSF are being used in clinical practice. One of the most critical factors in CSF biomarker research is the inadequate powering of studies because of the lack of sufficient samples that can be obtained in(More)
The myelination of axons by oligodendrocytes has been suggested to be modulated by experience, which could mediate neural plasticity by optimizing the performance of the circuitry. We have assessed the dynamics of oligodendrocyte generation and myelination in the human brain. The number of oligodendrocytes in the corpus callosum is established in childhood(More)
BACKGROUND Natalizumab affects systemic cytokine expressions and clinical course in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). We analyzed levels of inflammatory cytokines in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), levels of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 and osteopontin (OPN) in CSF, and clinical outcome(More)
BACKGROUND Most patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) eventually enter a secondary progressive (SPMS) phase, characterized by increasing neurological disability. The mechanisms underlying transition to SPMS are unknown and effective treatments and biomarkers are lacking. Vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) is an angiogenic(More)
The short-time Fourier transform (STFT) and the continuous wavelet transform (CWT) are used to analyze the time course of cellular motion in the inner ear. The velocity responses of individual outer hair cells and Hensen's cells to sinusoidal and amplitude modulated (AM) acoustical signals applied at the ear canal display characteristics typical of(More)
Using the ImmunoChip custom genotyping array, we analyzed 14,498 subjects with multiple sclerosis and 24,091 healthy controls for 161,311 autosomal variants and identified 135 potentially associated regions (P < 1.0 × 10(-4)). In a replication phase, we combined these data with previous genome-wide association study (GWAS) data from an independent 14,802(More)
Nitric oxide (NO) is formed as a consequence of induction of the iNOS enzyme during inflammatory disorders. To investigate NO production in multiple sclerosis (MS), we determined the concentrations of its oxidation products (NOx) in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and plasma of 61 MS patients. The patients were divided into three groups on the basis of their(More)
Nitric oxide is formed from L-arginine by a family of enzymes: nitric oxide synthase (NOS). The inducible nitric oxide synthase is activated by cytokines and it has been suggested that activation of the enzyme gives rise to neurotoxic levels of reactive nitrogen oxides. This enzyme has been shown to be localized in multiple sclerosis (MS) lesions but the(More)