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Flagellar axonemes assemble and continuously turn over at the flagellar tip. The supply and removal of axonemal subunits at the tip are mediated by intraflagellar transport (IFT), a motility process essential for the assembly and maintenance of all eukaryotic flagella and cilia. IFT is characterized by the movement of large protein complexes (IFT particles)(More)
The transport of flagellar precursors and removal of turnover products from the flagellar tip is mediated by intraflagellar transport (IFT) , which is essential for both flagellar assembly and maintenance . Large groups of IFT particles are moved from the flagellar base to the tip by kinesin-2, and smaller groups are returned to the base by cytoplasmic(More)
Eukaryotic cilia and flagella are long, thin organelles, and diffusion from the cytoplasm may not be able to support the high ATP concentrations needed for dynein motor activity. We discovered enzyme activities in the Chlamydomonas reinhardtii flagellum that catalyze three steps of the lower half of glycolysis (phosphoglycerate mutase, enolase, and pyruvate(More)
Microtubule plus-end tracking proteins (+TIPs) are structurally and functionally diverse factors that accumulate at the growing microtubule plus-ends, connect them to various cellular structures, and control microtubule dynamics [1, 2]. EB1 and its homologs are +TIPs that can autonomously recognize growing microtubule ends and recruit to them a variety of(More)
Intraflagellar transport (IFT) is the bi-directional movement of particles along the length of axonemal outer doublet microtubules and is needed for the assembly and maintenance of eukaryotic cilia and flagella. Retrograde IFT requires cytoplasmic dynein 1b, a motor complex whose organization, structural composition and regulation is poorly understood. We(More)
BACKGROUND The assembly and maintenance of eukaryotic cilia and flagella are mediated by intraflagellar transport (IFT), a bidirectional microtubule (MT)-based transport system. The IFT system consists of anterograde (kinesin-2) and retrograde (cDynein1b) motor complexes and IFT particles comprising two complexes, A and B. In the current model for IFT,(More)
Inversin is a ciliary protein that critically regulates developmental processes and tissue homeostasis in vertebrates, partly through the degradation of Dishevelled (Dvl) proteins to coordinate Wnt signaling in planar cell polarity (PCP). Here, we investigated the role of Inversin in coordinating cell migration, which highly depends on polarity processes at(More)
EB1 is a small microtubule (MT)-binding protein that associates preferentially with MT plus ends and plays a role in regulating MT dynamics. EB1 also targets other MT-associated proteins to the plus end and thereby regulates interactions of MTs with the cell cortex, mitotic kinetochores, and different cellular organelles [1, 2]. EB1 also localizes to(More)
This article is part of a Minifocus on cilia and flagella. For further reading, please see related articles: 'Sensory reception is an attribute of both primary cilia and motile cilia' by Robert A. Bloodgood (J. Cell Sci. 123, 505-509), 'The perennial organelle: assembly and disassembly of the primary cilium' by E. Scott Seeley and Maxence V. Nachury (J.(More)
The microtubule (MT) plus-end-tracking protein EB1 is required for assembly of primary cilia in mouse fibroblasts, but the mechanisms involved and the roles of the related proteins EB2 and EB3 in ciliogenesis are unknown. Using protein depletion experiments and expression of dominant-negative constructs we show here that EB1 and EB3, but not EB2, are(More)