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The mu-opioid receptor (MOR), through its effects on reward and stress-responsivity, modulates alcohol intake in both animal and human laboratory studies. We have previously demonstrated that the frequently occurring A118G single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in exon 1 of the MORgene (OPRM1), which encodes an amino-acid substitution, is functional and(More)
BACKGROUND Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is a modulator of alcohol intake in animal models of alcoholism, and is potentially involved in alcohol dependence. A coding Leu7Pro polymorphism in the signal peptide of preproNPY has been described, and the Pro7 allele has been reported to correlate with increased alcohol consumption in non-dependent Finnish males.(More)