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Intracellular propulsion of Listeria monocytogenes is the best understood form of motility dependent on actin polymerization. We have used in vitro motility assays of Listeria in platelet and brain extracts to elucidate the function of the focal adhesion proteins of the Ena (Drosophila Enabled)/VASP (vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein) family in(More)
IL-10 plays a central role in restraining the vigor of inflammatory responses, but the critical cellular sources of this counter-regulatory cytokine remain speculative in many disease models. Using a novel IL-10 transcriptional reporter mouse, we found an unexpected predominance of B cells (including plasma cells) among IL-10-expressing cells in peripheral(More)
The recruitment of actin to the surface of intracellular Listeria monocytogenes and subsequent tail formation is dependent on the expression of the bacterial surface protein ActA. Of the different functional domains of ActA identified thus far, the N-terminal region is absolutely required for actin filament recruitment and intracellular motility. Mutational(More)
Dinoroseobacter shibae, a member of the Roseobacter clade abundant in marine environments, is characterized by a pronounced pleomorphism. Cell shapes range from variable-sized ovoid rods to long filaments with a high copy number of chromosomes. Time-lapse microscopy shows cells dividing either by binary fission or by budding from the cell poles. Here we(More)
The concept of immune regulation/suppression has been well-established and, besides thymus-derived CD4+CD25+ regulatory T (TR) cells, it became clear that a variety of additional peripherally induced TR cells play vital roles in protection from many harmful immune responses including intestinal inflammation. In the present study, we have analyzed in(More)
Cholesterol-dependent cytolysins (CDCs) represent a large family of conserved pore-forming toxins produced by several Gram-positive bacteria such as Listeria monocytogenes, Streptococcus pyrogenes and Bacillus anthracis. These toxins trigger a broad range of cellular responses that greatly influence pathogenesis. Using mast cells, we demonstrate that(More)
BACKGROUND Although the contribution of alveolar type II epithelial cell (AEC II) activities in various aspects of respiratory immune regulation has become increasingly appreciated, our understanding of the contribution of AEC II transcriptosome in immunopathologic lung injury remains poorly understood. We have previously established a mouse model for(More)
Competence-stimulating-peptide (CSP)-mediated competence development in Streptococcus mutans is a transient and biphasic process, since only a subpopulation induces the expression of ComX in the presence of CSP, and the activation of the DNA uptake machinery in this fraction shuts down ~3 to 4 h postinduction. Here, we combine for the first time, to our(More)
BACKGROUND Regulatory T cells (T(regs)) have potential anti-inflammatory effects and are likely to be important in the pathogenesis of chronic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, the induction and expansion of T(regs) at sites of mucosal inflammation are not yet fully understood and may involve antigen presentation by local dendritic cells (DCs)(More)
The pathogenic fungus Candida albicans is able to cover its most potent proinflammatory cell wall molecules, the β-glucans, underneath a dense mannan layer, so that the pathogen becomes partly invisible for immune cells such as phagocytes. As the C. albicans histidine kinases Chk1p, Cos1p and CaSln1p had been reported to be involved in virulence and cell(More)