Lorren Mwaungulu

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We present a large case-control candidate gene study of leprosy susceptibility. Thirty-eight polymorphic sites from 13 genes were investigated for their role in susceptibility to leprosy by comparing 270 cases with 452 controls in Karonga district, northern Malawi. Homozygotes for a silent T-->C change in codon 352 of the vitamin D receptor gene appeared to(More)
BACKGROUND Routine ART programme statistics generally only provide information about individuals who start treatment. We aimed to investigate the outcome of those who are eligible but do not start ART in the Malawi programme, factors associated with this dropout, and reasons for not starting treatment, in a prospective cohort study. METHODS Individuals(More)
Surveys of enteric and urinary helminth infections were carried out in 1999 among 501 schoolchildren and among 320 adolescents and young adults participating in a study of immune responses to BCG vaccine in Karonga District, northern Malawi. Hookworm, Schistosoma mansoni and S. haematobium infections were detected in 64%, 27% and 20% of schoolchildren and(More)
We have previously shown that young adults living in a rural area of northern Malawi showed greater gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) responses to purified protein derivatives (PPD) prepared from environmental mycobacteria than to PPD from Mycobacterium tuberculosis. In order to define the mycobacterial species to which individuals living in a rural African(More)
SETTING Rural northern Malawi, where vaccination with BCG Glaxo (1077) provides protection against leprosy but not against pulmonary tuberculosis. OBJECTIVE To evaluate the patterns of responsiveness to purified protein derivative of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (PPD) in terms of delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma)(More)
Interferon (IFN)-gamma responsiveness to 12 purified protein derivative (PPD) and new tuberculin antigens from 9 species of mycobacteria was assessed, using a whole blood assay, in 616 young adults living in northern Malawi, where Mycobacterium bovis bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination provides no protection against pulmonary tuberculosis. The(More)
We conducted the first molecular study of tuberculosis (TB) to estimate the role of household contact and transmission from HIV-positive putative source contacts (PSCs) in a high HIV-prevalence area. TB patients in a long-term population-based study in Malawi were asked about past contact with TB. DNA fingerprinting was used to define clusters of cases with(More)
To investigate the role of innate immunity in variable efficacy of Mycobacterium bovis BCG vaccination in Malawi and the United Kingdom, we examined 24-h tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), and IL-10 responses to mycobacterial purified protein derivatives (PPDs). The rank order in stimulatory potency for different PPDs was the same(More)
Leprosy is a chronic disease caused by infection with Mycobacterium leprae, which is manifested across a wide clinical spectrum. There is evidence that susceptibility both to leprosy per se and to the clinical type of leprosy is influenced by host genetic factors. This paper describes the application of an identity by descent regression search for genetic(More)
OBJECTIVE To estimate the impact of antiretroviral therapy (ART) on the incidence of recurrent tuberculosis (TB) in an African population. DESIGN A long-term population cohort in Karonga District, northern Malawi. METHODS Patients who had completed treatment for laboratory-confirmed TB diagnosed since 1996 were visited annually to record vital status,(More)
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