Lorraine P. Smith

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Research over the last few years has demonstrated the increasing role of microRNAs (miRNAs) as major regulators of gene expression in diverse cellular processes and diseases. Several viruses, particularly herpesviruses, also use the miRNA pathway of gene regulation by encoding their own miRNAs. Marek's disease (MD) is a widespread lymphomatous neoplastic(More)
Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus-encoded microRNA (miRNA) MiR-K12-11 was recently shown to be a functional ortholog of miR-155, a miRNA that plays a major role in lymphoid malignancies and the modulation of immune responses. Here we show that miR-M4, encoded by the highly oncogenic Marek's disease virus of chickens, shares common targets with miR-155(More)
Notwithstanding the well-characterised roles of a number of oncogenes in neoplastic transformation, microRNAs (miRNAs) are increasingly implicated in several human cancers. Discovery of miRNAs in several oncogenic herpesviruses such as KSHV has further highlighted the potential of virus-encoded miRNAs to contribute to their oncogenic capabilities.(More)
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of short RNAs that function as post-transcriptional suppressors of protein expression and are involved in a variety of biological processes, including oncogenesis. Several recent studies have implicated the involvement of miR-221 and miR-222 in tumorigenesis as these miRNAs are upregulated in a number of cancers and affect the(More)
A real-time PCR method was developed, optimised and validated, to enable quantitation of Marek's disease virus genomes as copy number per million host cells. The duplex PCR measured the virus meq gene and host ovotransferrin gene in a single reaction enabling correction for differences in amount of sample DNA added. A bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC)(More)
Herpesvirus of turkey (HVT) is an alphaherpesvirus that is widely used as a live vaccine against Marek's disease because of its antigenic relationship with Marek's disease virus (MDV). In spite of a similar genome structure, HVT has several unique genes, the functions of which are not completely understood. As a first step in carrying out detailed analysis(More)
Avian leukosis virus (ALV) subgroup J is thought to have emerged through a recombination event between an unknown exogenous ALV and the endogenous retrovirus elements designated EAV-HP. All EAV-HP elements identified to date in the chicken genome show large deletions, including that of the entire pol gene. Here we report the identification of four(More)
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are increasingly recognized to play crucial roles in regulation of gene expression in different biological events, including many sporadic forms of cancer. However, despite the involvement of several viruses in inducing cancer, only a limited number of studies have been carried out to examine the miRNA expression signatures in(More)
Marek's disease is an economically important lymphoid neoplasm of chickens, caused by oncogenic strains of Marek's disease herpesvirus. The disease can be successfully controlled by vaccination with attenuated or non-pathogenic MDV strains. However, vaccine failures do occur as field strains continue to evolve towards pathotypes of greater virulence, and(More)
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are increasingly being recognized as major regulators of gene expression in many organisms, including viruses. Among viruses, members of the family Herpesviridae account for the majority of the currently known virus-encoded miRNAs. The highly oncogenic Marek's disease virus type 1 (MDV-1), an avian herpesvirus, has recently been shown to(More)