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OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to describe the clinical characteristics of a novel group of patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and tic disorders, designated as pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal (group A beta-hemolytic streptococcal [GABHS]) infections (PANDAS). METHOD The authors(More)
BACKGROUND Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in childhood is often refractory to treatment. Riluzole, a glutamate antagonist, has theoretical support as an alternative pharmacological treatment and has demonstrated possible benefit in some open-label trials in adults with OCD. METHODS Six subjects, ages 8-16 years, were enrolled in a 12-week open-label(More)
BACKGROUND The acronym PANDAS (pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infections) describes a subgroup of children with obsessive-compulsive disorder and/or tic disorder that experience symptom exacerbations following streptococcal infections. We hypothesized that the prevention of streptococcal infections among(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine the rates of psychiatric disorders in the first-degree relatives of children with infection-triggered obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and/or tics (pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infections; PANDAS). METHOD The probands of this study were 54 children with PANDAS (n = 24 with a(More)
BACKGROUND Some children with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and tic disorders appear to have symptom exacerbations triggered by group A beta-hemolytic streptococcal infections in a manner that is similar to rheumatic fever and its neurologic variant, Sydenham's chorea. Because penicillin prophylaxis has proven to be effective in preventing recurrences(More)
The search for subtypes of OCD has led to increased appreciation of the importance of distinguishing early (prepubertal) versus later on-set, and of tic-related versus non-tic related subtypes, as well as postinfectious forms of the disorder. How these apparent typologies relate to each other remains to be elucidated. Careful longitudinal clinical(More)
Many children with childhood-onset obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) fail to respond adequately to standard therapies. Evidence from preclinical and clinical studies suggests that the glutamatergic neurotransmitter system might be an alternative treatment target. This study examined the efficacy of riluzole, a glutamatergic modulator, as an adjunctive(More)
Following previous research which suggests that piracetam improves performance on tasks associated with the left hemisphere, a 12-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of developmental dyslexics was conducted. Six study sites treated 257 dyslexic boys between the ages of 8 and 13 years who were significantly below their potential in reading(More)
BACKGROUND The first cases of pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infections (PANDAS) were described >15 years ago. Since that time, the literature has been divided between studies that successfully demonstrate an etiologic relationship between Group A streptococcal (GAS) infections and childhood-onset(More)
The effect of piracetam on visual event-related potentials (ERP) was investigated in a double-blind placebo-controlled study. Eight- to 12-year-old dyslexic males were randomly assigned to 3.3 g/day of piracetam or matching placebo in two divided doses over a 12-week period. Children performed a vigilance task in which they pressed a key when two alphabetic(More)