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Bcl-2 family members that have only a single Bcl-2 homology domain, BH3, are potent inducers of apoptosis, and some appear to play a critical role in developmentally programmed cell death. We examined the regulation of the proapoptotic activity of the BH3-only protein Bim. In healthy cells, most Bim molecules were bound to LC8 cytoplasmic dynein light chain(More)
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress caused by misfolded proteins or cytotoxic drugs can kill cells and although activation of this pathway has been implicated in the etiology of certain degenerative disorders its mechanism remains unresolved. Bim, a proapoptotic BH3-only member of the Bcl-2 family is required for initiation of apoptosis induced by cytokine(More)
Certain members of the Bcl-2 family inhibit apoptosis while others facilitate this physiological process of cell death. An expression screen for proteins that bind to Bcl-2 yielded a small novel protein, denoted Bim, whose only similarity to any known protein is the short (nine amino acid) BH3 motif shared by most Bcl-2 homologues. Bim provokes apoptosis,(More)
Bcl-2 family members bearing only the BH3 domain are essential inducers of apoptosis. We identified a BH3-only protein, Bmf, and show that its BH3 domain is required both for binding to prosurvival Bcl-2 proteins and for triggering apoptosis. In healthy cells, Bmf is sequestered to myosin V motors by association with dynein light chain 2. Certain damage(More)
Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) has been implicated in the maintenance of homeostasis in various organs, including the gastric epithelium. In particular, TGF-beta-induced signaling was shown to be required for the differentiation-associated physiological apoptosis of gastric epithelial cells, but its mechanism has not been well understood. In(More)
The cause of common polygenic autoimmune diseases is not understood because of genetic and cellular complexity. Here, we pinpoint the action of a subset of autoimmune susceptibility loci in the NOD mouse strain linked to D1mit181, D2mit490, D7mit101, and D15mit229, which cause a generalized resistance to thymic deletion in vivo that applies equally to(More)
Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) is a potent inflammatory cytokine that is usually cleaved and activated by inflammasome-associated caspase-1. To determine whether IL-1β activation is regulated by inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) proteins, we treated macrophages with an IAP-antagonist "Smac mimetic" compound or genetically deleted the genes that encode the three IAP(More)
In human follicular lymphoma the t(14; 18) chromosome translocation activates the antiapoptotic oncogene Bcl2 by linking it to the immunoglobulin heavy chain (IGH) locus. Transgenic mice expressing Bcl2 controlled by an Igh enhancer (E mu) do not develop follicular lymphoma, although they do have an increased incidence of other B-lymphoid neoplasms. We have(More)
The Bcl-2 family of proteins regulate apoptosis, some antagonizing cell death and others facilitating it. It has recently been demonstrated that Bcl-2 not only inhibits apoptosis but also restrains cell cycle entry. We show here that these two functions can be genetically dissociated. Mutation of a tyrosine residue within the conserved N-terminal BH4 region(More)
Members of the Bcl-2 protein family play crucial roles in the maintenance of tissue homeostasis by regulating apoptosis in response to developmental cues or exogenous stress. Proapoptotic BH3-only members of the Bcl-2 family are essential for initiation of cell death, and they function by activating the proapoptotic Bcl-2 family members Bax and/or Bak,(More)