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Systemic lupus erythematosus is an autoimmune disease in which most patients express Abs that bind double-stranded DNA. Recent work has shown that a subset of lupus Abs can crossreact with the NR2A and NR2B subunits of the NMDA receptor. This receptor is expressed in neurons throughout the brain but is at highest density within cells of the hippocampus,(More)
Neuronal death is a prominent, but poorly understood, pathological hallmark of prion disease. Notably, in the absence of the cellular prion protein (PrPC), the disease-associated isoform, PrPSc, appears not to be intrinsically neurotoxic, suggesting that PrPC itself may participate directly in the prion neurodegenerative cascade. Here, cross-linking PrPC in(More)
Microglial activation was investigated in the brains of young (3 months old) and older (9-12 months old) mice following administration of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP). Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-positive neuronal loss differed significantly between young and older mice. Importantly, the two groups clearly demonstrated a distinct(More)
Dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta undergo apoptosis after transection of the medial forebrain bundle. We have assessed the temporal and sequential activities of microglia in these events by examining the complement-3 (OX-42), major histocompatibility complex class II antigen presentation (OX-6) and phagocytic activity (ED1), and(More)
Recent etiological study in twins (Tanner et al. 1999) strongly suggests that environmental factors play an important role in typical, non-familial Parkinson's disease (PD), beginning after age 50. Epidemiological risk factor analyses of typical PD cases have identified several neurotoxicants, including MPP(+) (the active metabolite of MPTP), paraquat,(More)
Our past work has shown that the C-terminal fragment of amyloid precursor protein (APP) translocated to the nucleus in neurons destined for delayed excitotoxic degeneration. To test whether nuclear APP fragments also play a role in the progressive loss of dopaminergic (DA) substantia nigra compacta (SNc) neurons, we performed unilateral medial forebrain(More)
Oxidative stress (OS) is a primary pathogenic mechanism of nigral dopaminergic (DA) cell death in Parkinson's disease (PD). Oxidative damage, Lewy body formation and decreased mitochondrial complex I activity are the consistent pathological findings in PD. In nigral DA neurons, however, it is unknown whether any gene expressional changes induced by OS(More)
Actively dividing cells cultured from human leptomeninges obtained at autopsy and from human pia obtained at neurosurgery expressed two antigens characteristic of a mature neuronal phenotype: the 160 kDa neurofilament protein (NF-M) and neuron-specific enolase (NSE). The cells lacked typical glial, epithelial and endothelial markers but did contain(More)
Neurotoxic injury of the caudate-putamen and lateral globus pallidus unilaterally initiated transneuronal degeneration of neurons in the ipsilateral substantia nigra reticulata (SNR). Quantification of SNR neurons using unbiased stereology demonstrated that neuron loss began 4 days after the initial striatal lesion, followed by significant loss (50%) at 6(More)
Septin 5, a parkin substrate, is a vesicle- and membrane-associated protein that plays a significant role in inhibiting exocytosis. The regulatory function of Septin 5 in dopaminergic (DAergic) neurons of substantia nigra (SN), maintained at relatively low levels, has not yet been delineated. As loss of function mutations of parkin are the principal cause(More)