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In systemic lupus erythematosus, antibodies against double-stranded DNA are a major contributor to renal disease. We have previously demonstrated that the pentapeptide Asp/Glu-Trp-Asp/Glu-Tyr-Ser/Gly is a molecular mimic of double-stranded DNA. This sequence is also present in the extracellular domain of murine and human NMDA (N-methyl-D-aspartate) receptor(More)
Patients with lupus (SLE) experience progressive cognitive loss without evidence of CNS vascular disease or inflammation. SLE patients produce anti-DNA antibodies that crossreact with NMDA receptors and are capable of mediating excitotoxic death. We now show that mice induced by antigen to express these antibodies have no neuronal damage until breakdown of(More)
Neuronal death is a prominent, but poorly understood, pathological hallmark of prion disease. Notably, in the absence of the cellular prion protein (PrPC), the disease-associated isoform, PrPSc, appears not to be intrinsically neurotoxic, suggesting that PrPC itself may participate directly in the prion neurodegenerative cascade. Here, cross-linking PrPC in(More)
Systemic lupus erythematosus is an autoimmune disease in which most patients express Abs that bind double-stranded DNA. Recent work has shown that a subset of lupus Abs can crossreact with the NR2A and NR2B subunits of the NMDA receptor. This receptor is expressed in neurons throughout the brain but is at highest density within cells of the hippocampus,(More)
Microglial activation was investigated in the brains of young (3 months old) and older (9-12 months old) mice following administration of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP). Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-positive neuronal loss differed significantly between young and older mice. Importantly, the two groups clearly demonstrated a distinct(More)
Dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta undergo apoptosis after transection of the medial forebrain bundle. We have assessed the temporal and sequential activities of microglia in these events by examining the complement-3 (OX-42), major histocompatibility complex class II antigen presentation (OX-6) and phagocytic activity (ED1), and(More)
Neurotoxic injury of the caudate-putamen and lateral globus pallidus unilaterally initiated transneuronal degeneration of neurons in the ipsilateral substantia nigra reticulata (SNR). Quantification of SNR neurons using unbiased stereology demonstrated that neuron loss began 4 days after the initial striatal lesion, followed by significant loss (50%) at 6(More)
Neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus, which often entails cognitive disturbances and memory loss, has become a major complication for lupus patients. Previously, we developed a murine model of neuropsychiatric lupus based on Abs that cross-react with dsDNA and the NMDA receptor (NMDAR). We showed that these murine Abs impair cognition when they(More)
Oxidative stress (OS) is a primary pathogenic mechanism of nigral dopaminergic (DA) cell death in Parkinson's disease (PD). Oxidative damage, Lewy body formation and decreased mitochondrial complex I activity are the consistent pathological findings in PD. In nigral DA neurons, however, it is unknown whether any gene expressional changes induced by OS(More)
Recent etiological study in twins (Tanner et al. 1999) strongly suggests that environmental factors play an important role in typical, non-familial Parkinson's disease (PD), beginning after age 50. Epidemiological risk factor analyses of typical PD cases have identified several neurotoxicants, including MPP(+) (the active metabolite of MPTP), paraquat,(More)