Lorne H. Blackbourne

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BACKGROUND Critical evaluation of all aspects of combat casualty care, including mortality, with a special focus on the incidence and causes of potentially preventable deaths among US combat fatalities, is central to identifying gaps in knowledge, training, equipment, and execution of battlefield trauma care. The impetus to produce this analysis was to(More)
BACKGROUND Up to 9% of casualties killed in action during the Vietnam War died from exsanguination from extremity injuries. Retrospective reviews of prehospital tourniquet use in World War II and by the Israeli Defense Forces revealed improvements in extremity hemorrhage control and very few adverse limb outcomes when tourniquet times are less than 6 hours.(More)
BACKGROUND Blood vessel trauma leading to hemorrhage or ischemia presents a significant cause of morbidity and mortality after battlefield injury. The objective of this study is to characterize the epidemiology of vascular injury in the wars of Iraq and Afghanistan, including categorization of anatomic patterns, mechanism, and management of casualties. (More)
BACKGROUND Acute lung injury (ALI) is a syndrome consisting of noncardiogenic acute hypoxemic respiratory failure with the presence of bilateral pulmonary infiltrates and occurs in up to 33% of critically ill trauma patients. Retrospective and observational studies have suggested that a blood component resuscitation strategy using equal ratios of packed red(More)
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES The empiric use of a high plasma to packed red-blood-cell [fresh frozen plasma:red-blood-cells (FFP:RBC)] ratio in trauma resuscitation for patients with massive bleeding has become well accepted without clear or objective indications. Increased plasma transfusion is associated with worse outcome in some patient populations. While(More)
BACKGROUND Our recent experimental study showed that peripheral muscle tissue oxygen saturation (StO2), determined noninvasively by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), was more reliable than systemic hemodynamics or invasive oxygenation variables as an index of traumatic shock. The purpose of this study was to establish the normal range of thenar muscle StO2(More)
In an effort to better characterize the natural history of pancreatoduodenal injuries, we present a review of clinical experiences in the treatment of combined traumatic pancreatoduodenal injuries, focusing on patients in extremis. Records of patients with abdominal trauma admitted to a level 1 trauma center from 1997 to 2001 were reviewed. Of 240 patients(More)
BACKGROUND Previous studies identified WoundStat (WS, smectite) and Combat Gauze (CG, kaolin-coated gauze) as the most effective available agents for controlling arterial bleeding with potential utility in casualty care. Tissue sealant properties of WS suggested its potential advantage over clot-promoting CG for treating coagulopathic bleeding. This study(More)
OBJECTIVE To assess outcome differences between locally burned civilians and military personnel burned in a distant combat zone treated in the same facility. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA The United States Army Institute of Surgical Research (USAISR) Burn Center serves as a referral center for civilians and is the sole center for significant burns in military(More)
BACKGROUND Tympanic membrane perforation is the most common primary blast injury in the current conflicts and occurs in approximately one tenth of service members wounded by combat explosions. We wanted to determine the severity of perforation and its effect on hearing and combat readiness. METHODS This analysis is a retrospective study of US service(More)