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The signals that determine whether axons are ensheathed or myelinated by Schwann cells have long been elusive. We now report that threshold levels of neuregulin-1 (NRG1) type III on axons determine their ensheathment fate. Ensheathed axons express low levels whereas myelinated fibers express high levels of NRG1 type III. Sensory neurons from NRG1 type III(More)
The behavioral and cognitive effects of nicotine suggest that nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) participate in central nervous system (CNS) function. Although nAChR subunit messenger RNA (mRNA) and nicotine binding sites are common in the brain, there is little evidence for synapses mediated by nAChRs in the CNS. To test whether, CNS nAChRs might(More)
In the nervous system of vertebrates, myelination is essential for rapid and accurate impulse conduction. Myelin thickness depends on axon fiber size. We use mutant and transgenic mouse lines to show that axonal Neuregulin-1 (Nrg1) signals information about axon size to Schwann cells. Reduced Nrg1 expression causes hypomyelination and reduced nerve(More)
1993). Eight are designated as ␣-type (␣2–␣9) and three Center for Neurobiology and Behavior as ␤-type genes (␤2–␤4; also called non-␣1–␣3). Assign-College of Physicians and Surgeons ment to the neuronal ␣ subunit group requires inclusion Columbia University of the adjacent cysteine residues equivalent to amino New York, New York 10032 acids 192 and 193 of(More)
Neuronal migration and axon guidance constitute fundamental processes in brain development that are generally studied independently. Although both share common mechanisms of cell biology and biochemistry, little is known about their coordinated integration in the formation of neural circuits. Here we show that the development of the thalamocortical(More)
Neuregulin-1 (NRG-1) signaling has been implicated in inductive interactions between pre- and postsynaptic partners during synaptogenesis. We used gene targeting to selectively disrupt cysteine-rich domain-(CRD-) containing NRG-1 isoforms. In CRD-NRG-1-/-mice, peripheral projections defasciculated and displayed aberrant branching patterns within their(More)
Transcripts for the beta2 and the beta4 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subunits are found throughout the CNS and the peripheral nervous system. These two beta subunits can form heteromultimeric channels with any of the alpha2, alpha3, alpha4, or alpha5 subunits in heterologous expression systems. Nonetheless, the subunit composition of native(More)
Ligand-gated ion channels are multi-subunit complexes where each subunit-type is encoded by several related genes. Heterologous expression of any one of the neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR) alpha-type subunits, either alone or with any beta-type subunit, typically yields functional nAChR channels. A striking exception is the nAChR alpha5(More)
The alpha3 subunit of the neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor is widely expressed in autonomic ganglia and in some parts of the brain. The alpha3 subunit can form heteromultimeric ion channels with other alpha subunits and with beta2 and beta4 subunits, but its function in vivo is poorly understood. We prepared a null mutation for the alpha3 gene by(More)