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OBJECTIVES To undertake a systematic review of the long-term effects of obesity treatments on body weight, risk factors for disease, and disease. METHODS The study encompassed three systematic reviews that examined different aspects of obesity treatments. (1) A systematic review of obesity treatments in adults where the methods of the Cochrane(More)
CONTEXT Observational studies show an association between low vitamin D status assessed by circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D and cardiovascular events and mortality. Data from randomized controlled trials are limited. OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to test whether daily doses of vitamin D(3) at 400 or 1000 IU/d for 1 yr affected conventional markers of(More)
OBJECTIVE Early warning scoring systems are widely used in clinical practice to allow early recognition of the deteriorating patient, but they lack validation. We aimed to test the ability of physiologic variables, either alone or in existing early scoring systems, to predict major deterioration in a patient's condition and attempt to derive functions with(More)
BACKGROUND Alkali provision may explain why fruit and vegetables benefit bone health. OBJECTIVE We aimed to determine the effects of alkali-providing potassium citrate (double-blind) and fruit and vegetable intake (single-blind) on bone turnover over 2 y. DESIGN We conducted a randomized placebo-controlled trial in 276 postmenopausal women (aged 55-65(More)
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Several nutrients affect bone turnover. Dietary patterns may provide insights into which foods are important and how nutrition affects bone health. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between dietary patterns, bone turnover and bone mineral density (BMD). SUBJECTS/METHODS This cross-sectional study examined 3236(More)
This systematic review assesses the long-term effectiveness of weight loss on all cause mortality in overweight/obese people. Medline, Embase and Cinahl were searched (1966-2005). Cohort studies and trials on participants with body mass index > or =25 kg m(-2), with weight change and mortality with > or =2-year follow-up, were included finally identifying(More)
BACKGROUND The success of in-vitro fertilisation (IVF) treatment depends on adequate follicle recruitment by using controlled ovarian stimulation with gonadotrophins. Failure to recruit adequate follicles is called 'poor response'. Various treatment protocols have been proposed that are targeted at this cohort of women, aiming to increase their ovarian(More)
This paper aims to review the evidence for long-term effectiveness of weight loss on cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and triglycerides in overweight/obese people. Current evidence is mostly based on short-term studies. A systematic review of long-term lipid outcomes of weight loss in studies published between 1966(More)
We assessed sunlight and dietary contributions to vitamin D status in British postmenopausal women. Our true longitudinal 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) measurements varied seasonally, being lower in the north compared to the south and lower in Asian women. Sunlight exposure in summer and spring provided 80% total annual intake of vitamin D. Vitamin D(More)
Few year-long vitamin D supplementation trials exist that match seasonal changes. The aim of this study was to determine whether daily oral vitamin D3 at 400 IU or 1000 IU compared with placebo affects annual bone mineral density (BMD) change in postmenopausal women in a 1-year double-blind placebo controlled trial in Scotland. White women aged 60 to 70(More)