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High-altitude hypoxia (reduced inspired oxygen tension due to decreased barometric pressure) exerts severe physiological stress on the human body. Two high-altitude regions where humans have lived for millennia are the Andean Altiplano and the Tibetan Plateau. Populations living in these regions exhibit unique circulatory, respiratory, and hematological(More)
Mitochondrial DNAs (mtDNAs) of 54 Tibetans residing at altitudes ranging from 3,000-4,500 m were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), examined by high-resolution restriction endonuclease analysis, and compared with those previously described in 10 other Asian and Siberian populations. This comparison revealed that more than 50% of Asian mtDNAs(More)
We have initiated a study of ancient male migrations from Siberia to the Americas using Y chromosome polymorphisms. The first polymorphism examined, a C→T transition at nucleotide position 181 of the DYS199 locus, was previously reported only in Native American populations. To investigate the origin of this DYS199 polymorphism, we screened Y chromosomes(More)
Admixture mapping (AM) is a promising method for the identification of genetic risk factors for complex traits and diseases showing prevalence differences among populations. Efficient application of this method requires the use of a genomewide panel of ancestry-informative markers (AIMs) to infer the population of origin of chromosomal regions in admixed(More)
Lifelong high-altitude residents of North and South America acquire blunted hypoxic ventilatory responses and exhibit decreased ventilation compared with acclimatized newcomers. The ventilatory characteristics of Himalayan high-altitude residents are of interest in the light of their reportedly lower hemoglobin levels and legendary exercise performance.(More)
This is an international consensus statement of an ad hoc committee formed by the International Society for Mountain Medicine (ISMM) at the VI World Congress on Mountain Medicine and High Altitude Physiology (Xining, China; 2004) and represents the committee's interpretation of the current knowledge with regard to the most common chronic and subacute high(More)
BACKGROUND The systemic hemodynamic profile of human pregnancy is characterized by a decrease in mean arterial pressure, a rise in cardiac output and plasma volume in association with an increase in renal plasma flow and glomerular filtration rate. The factors and the time course responsible for the initial hemodynamic changes seen in human pregnancy have(More)
High-altitude environments (>2,500 m) provide scientists with a natural laboratory to study the physiological and genetic effects of low ambient oxygen tension on human populations. One approach to understanding how life at high altitude has affected human metabolism is to survey genome-wide datasets for signatures of natural selection. In this work, we(More)
Studies of ventilatory response to high altitudes have occupied an important position in respiratory physiology. This review summarizes recent studies in Tibetan high-altitude residents that collectively challenge the prior consensus that lifelong high-altitude residents ventilate less than acclimatized newcomers do as the result of acquired 'blunting' of(More)
  • L G Moore
  • High altitude medicine & biology
  • 2001
Some 140 million persons live permanently at high altitudes (>2500 m) in North, Central and South America, East Africa, and Asia. Reviewed here are recent studies which address the question as to whether genetic adaptation to high altitude has occurred. Common to these studies are the use of the oxygen transport system and the passage of time as organizing(More)