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The specificities of 65 compounds reported to be relatively specific inhibitors of protein kinases have been profiled against a panel of 70-80 protein kinases. On the basis of this information, the effects of compounds that we have studied in cells and other data in the literature, we recommend the use of the following small-molecule inhibitors: SB(More)
Macrophages acquire strikingly different properties that enable them to play key roles during the initiation, propagation, and resolution of inflammation. Classically activated (M1) macrophages produce proinflammatory mediators to combat invading pathogens and respond to tissue damage in the host, whereas regulatory macrophages (M2b) produce high levels of(More)
Members of the IKK {IκB [inhibitor of NF-κB (nuclear factor κB)] kinase} family play a central role in innate immunity by inducing NF-κB- and IRF [IFN (interferon) regulatory factor]-dependent gene transcription programmes required for the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and IFNs. However, the molecular mechanisms that activate these protein(More)
MDP (muramyl dipeptide), a component of peptidoglycan, interacts with NOD2 (nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain 2) stimulating the NOD2-RIP2 (receptor-interacting protein 2) complex to activate signalling pathways important for antibacterial defence. Here we demonstrate that the protein kinase activity of RIP2 has two functions, namely to limit the(More)
TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK1) and IkappaB kinase epsilon (IKKepsilon) regulate the production of Type 1 interferons during bacterial and viral infection, but the lack of useful pharmacological inhibitors has hampered progress in identifying additional physiological roles of these protein kinases and how they are regulated. Here we demonstrate that BX795, a(More)
Mouse protein-25 (MO25) isoforms bind to the STRAD pseudokinase and stabilise it in a conformation that can activate the LKB1 tumour suppressor kinase. We demonstrate that by binding to several STE20 family kinases, MO25 has roles beyond controlling LKB1. These new MO25 targets are SPAK/OSR1 kinases, regulators of ion homeostasis and blood pressure, and(More)
The compound BAY 11-7082 inhibits IκBα [inhibitor of NF-κB (nuclear factor κB)α] phosphorylation in cells and has been used to implicate the canonical IKKs (IκB kinases) and NF-κB in >350 publications. In the present study we report that BAY 11-7082 does not inhibit the IKKs, but suppresses their activation in LPS (lipopolysaccharide)-stimulated RAW(More)
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