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The measurement of circulating nucleic acids has transformed the management of chronic viral infections such as HIV. The development of analogous markers for individuals with cancer could similarly enhance the management of their disease. DNA containing somatic mutations is highly tumor specific and thus, in theory, can provide optimum markers. However, the(More)
Early detection remains the most promising approach to improve long-term survival of patients with ovarian cancer. In a five-center case-control study, serum proteomic expressions were analyzed on 153 patients with invasive epithelial ovarian cancer, 42 with other ovarian cancers, 166 with benign pelvic masses, and 142 healthy women. Data from patients with(More)
BACKGROUND Updated National Academy of Clinical Biochemistry (NACB) Laboratory Medicine Practice Guidelines for the use of tumor markers in the clinic have been developed. METHODS Published reports relevant to use of tumor markers for 5 cancer sites--testicular, prostate, colorectal, breast, and ovarian--were critically reviewed. RESULTS For testicular(More)
BACKGROUND Several proteolytically derived fragments from the proline-rich region (PRR) of human inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor heavy chain 4 (ITIH4) have been identified by surface-enhanced or matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF-MS or MALDI-TOF-MS) as potential disease markers. METHODS Previously, we(More)
OBJECTIVES To determine whether relative vitamin D deficiency during the winter months contributes to age-related bone loss and whether rates of change in hard- and soft-tissue mass vary during the year. DESIGN Double-blind, placebo-controlled, 1-year trial in 249 women in which equal numbers of women were randomized to either placebo or 400 IU of vitamin(More)
BACKGROUND Protein expression profiling for differences indicative of early cancer has promise for improving diagnostics. This report describes the first stage of a National Cancer Institute/Early Detection Research Network-sponsored multiinstitutional evaluation and validation of this approach for detection of prostate cancer. METHODS Two sequential(More)
Tumor-released DNA in blood represents a promising biomarker for cancer detection. It has been postulated that tumor necrosis causes release of DNA of varying sizes, which contrasts apoptosis in normal tissue that releases smaller and more uniform DNA fragments. To test the hypothesis that increased DNA integrity, i.e., a longer DNA strand, is a(More)
A panel of expression markers was validated and used to document that, when radical prostatectomy specimens are cultured in low (i.e., <260 micromol/L)-calcium (Ca2+)-serum-free, growth factor-defined (SFD) medium, what grows out are not prostatic cancer cells but basally derived normal transit-amplifying prostatic epithelial cells. The selective outgrowth(More)
PURPOSE Epidemiological studies and a randomized intervention trial suggest that the risk of prostate cancer may be reduced by selenium intake. We investigated whether plasma selenium level before diagnosis correlated with the risk of later developing prostate cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS A case control study was performed on men from the Baltimore(More)
PURPOSE Approximately 25% of radical prostatectomies performed for stage T1c disease show potentially insignificant prostate cancer. We previously reported the use of serum prostate specific antigen (PSA) density and needle biopsy findings to predict potentially insignificant cancer. We now evaluate whether using free/total serum PSA levels along with(More)