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Early detection remains the most promising approach to improve long-term survival of patients with ovarian cancer. In a five-center case-control study, serum proteomic expressions were analyzed on 153 patients with invasive epithelial ovarian cancer, 42 with other ovarian cancers, 166 with benign pelvic masses, and 142 healthy women. Data from patients with(More)
BACKGROUND Protein expression profiling for differences indicative of early cancer has promise for improving diagnostics. This report describes the first stage of a National Cancer Institute/Early Detection Research Network-sponsored multiinstitutional evaluation and validation of this approach for detection of prostate cancer. METHODS Two sequential(More)
BACKGROUND The free prostate-specific antigen (PSA) isoform, [-2]proPSA, has been shown to be associated with prostate cancer. The study objective was to characterize the clinical utility of serum [-2]proPSA for prostate cancer detection and assess its association with aggressive disease. METHODS From among 669 subjects in a prospective prostate cancer(More)
Background: Several proteolytically derived fragments from the proline-rich region (PRR) of human inter-␣-trypsin inhibitor heavy chain 4 (ITIH4) have been identified by surface-enhanced or matrix-assisted laser de-sorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF-MS or MALDI-TOF-MS) as potential disease markers. Methods: Previously, we(More)
BACKGROUND Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) tests are performed on many female patients before performing medical procedures or administering medications that may harm a fetus. hCG of pituitary origin has been shown to increase with age. Therefore, mild increases in serum hCG in an older patient can be of pituitary origin and does not necessarily indicate(More)
The greatest unmet needs in biomarker discovery are those discoveries that lead to the development of clinical diagnostic tests. These clinical diagnostic tests can provide early intervention when a patient would present otherwise healthy (e.g., cancer or cardiovascular disease) and aid clinical decision making with improved clinical outcomes. The past two(More)
BACKGROUND Updated National Academy of Clinical Biochemistry (NACB) Laboratory Medicine Practice Guidelines for the use of tumor markers in the clinic have been developed. METHODS Published reports relevant to use of tumor markers for 5 cancer sites--testicular, prostate, colorectal, breast, and ovarian--were critically reviewed. RESULTS For testicular(More)
Tumor-released DNA in blood represents a promising biomarker for cancer detection. It has been postulated that tumor necrosis causes release of DNA of varying sizes, which contrasts apoptosis in normal tissue that releases smaller and more uniform DNA fragments. To test the hypothesis that increased DNA integrity, i.e., a longer DNA strand, is a(More)
PURPOSE Patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma usually present with advanced-stage disease and a dismal prognosis. One effective strategy likely to improve the morbidity and mortality from pancreatic cancer would be the identification of accurate, noninvasive diagnostic markers that would enable earlier diagnosis of symptomatic patients and earlier(More)
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 load in breast milk and mastitis were examined as risk factors for vertical transmission of HIV-1. Six weeks after delivery, HIV-1 load and sodium (an indicator of mastitis) were measured in breast milk from 334 HIV-1-infected women in Malawi. Median breast milk HIV-1 load was 700 copies/mL among women with(More)