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The measurement of circulating nucleic acids has transformed the management of chronic viral infections such as HIV. The development of analogous markers for individuals with cancer could similarly enhance the management of their disease. DNA containing somatic mutations is highly tumor specific and thus, in theory, can provide optimum markers. However, the(More)
PURPOSE Epidemiological studies and a randomized intervention trial suggest that the risk of prostate cancer may be reduced by selenium intake. We investigated whether plasma selenium level before diagnosis correlated with the risk of later developing prostate cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS A case control study was performed on men from the Baltimore(More)
Early detection remains the most promising approach to improve long-term survival of patients with ovarian cancer. In a five-center case-control study, serum proteomic expressions were analyzed on 153 patients with invasive epithelial ovarian cancer, 42 with other ovarian cancers, 166 with benign pelvic masses, and 142 healthy women. Data from patients with(More)
PURPOSE Approximately 25% of radical prostatectomies performed for stage T1c disease show potentially insignificant prostate cancer. We previously reported the use of serum prostate specific antigen (PSA) density and needle biopsy findings to predict potentially insignificant cancer. We now evaluate whether using free/total serum PSA levels along with(More)
CONTEXT Current tumor markers for ovarian cancer still lack adequate sensitivity and specificity to be applicable in large populations. High-throughput proteomic profiling and bioinformatics tools allow for the rapid screening of a large number of potential biomarkers in serum, plasma, or other body fluids. OBJECTIVE To determine whether protein profiles(More)
PURPOSE Prostate specific antigen and free prostate specific antigen have limited specificity to detect clinically significant, curable prostate cancer, leading to unnecessary biopsy, and detection and treatment of some indolent tumors. Specificity to detect clinically significant prostate cancer may be improved by [-2]pro-prostate specific antigen. We(More)
OBJECTIVES To determine whether relative vitamin D deficiency during the winter months contributes to age-related bone loss and whether rates of change in hard- and soft-tissue mass vary during the year. DESIGN Double-blind, placebo-controlled, 1-year trial in 249 women in which equal numbers of women were randomized to either placebo or 400 IU of vitamin(More)
BACKGROUND Updated National Academy of Clinical Biochemistry (NACB) Laboratory Medicine Practice Guidelines for the use of tumor markers in the clinic have been developed. METHODS Published reports relevant to use of tumor markers for 5 cancer sites--testicular, prostate, colorectal, breast, and ovarian--were critically reviewed. RESULTS For testicular(More)
BACKGROUND The free prostate-specific antigen (PSA) isoform, [-2]proPSA, has been shown to be associated with prostate cancer. The study objective was to characterize the clinical utility of serum [-2]proPSA for prostate cancer detection and assess its association with aggressive disease. METHODS From among 669 subjects in a prospective prostate cancer(More)
BACKGROUND Protein expression profiling for differences indicative of early cancer has promise for improving diagnostics. This report describes the first stage of a National Cancer Institute/Early Detection Research Network-sponsored multiinstitutional evaluation and validation of this approach for detection of prostate cancer. METHODS Two sequential(More)