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This study examined whether practice with arithmetic problems presented in a nontraditional problem format improves understanding of mathematical equivalence. Children (M age = 8;0; N = 90) were randomly assigned to practice addition in one of three conditions: (a) traditional, in which problems were presented in the traditional "operations on left side"… (More)
Concrete objects are used to help children understand math concepts. Research suggests that perceptually rich objects may hinder children's performance on math tasks relative to bland objects. However, previous studies have confounded the perceptual richness of objects with children's established knowledge of the objects. The present study examined how… (More)
Educators often use concrete objects to help children understand mathematics concepts. However, findings on the effectiveness of concrete objects are mixed. The present study examined how two factors-perceptual richness and established knowledge of the objects-combine to influence children's counting performance. In two experiments, preschoolers (N = 133;… (More)
Research suggests that educational games may be particularly useful for helping children learn STEM concepts; however, the mechanisms involved in game-based learning are not well understood. The present study tested the hypothesis that games are effective because they provide a supportive learning context that allows children to react adaptively to errors.… (More)
When counting, the final word used to tag the final item in a set represents the cardinality, or total number, of the set. Understanding of this concept serves as a foundation for children's basic mathematical skills. However, little is known about how the early learning environment can be structured to help children understand this important concept. The… (More)
and Krysten Williams for help with coding and tutoring. This research would not have been possible without the support of many administrators, teachers, parents, and students in the greater South Bend area.