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BACKGROUND Quantifying sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevalence and incidence is important for planning interventions and advocating for resources. The World Health Organization (WHO) periodically estimates global and regional prevalence and incidence of four curable STIs: chlamydia, gonorrhoea, trichomoniasis and syphilis. METHODS AND FINDINGS(More)
BACKGROUND The World Health Organization initiative to eliminate mother-to-child transmission of syphilis aims for ≥ 90% of pregnant women to be tested for syphilis and ≥ 90% to receive treatment by 2015. We calculated global and regional estimates of syphilis in pregnancy and associated adverse outcomes for 2008, as well as antenatal care (ANC) coverage(More)
OBJECTIVE To perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of reported estimates of adverse pregnancy outcomes among untreated women with syphilis and women without syphilis. METHODS PubMed, EMBASE and Cochrane Libraries were searched for literature assessing adverse pregnancy outcomes among untreated women with seroreactivity for Treponema pallidum(More)
Congenital syphilis is the oldest recognized congenital infection, and continues to account for extensive global perinatal morbidity and mortality today. Serious adverse pregnancy outcomes caused by maternal syphilis infection are prevented with screening early in pregnancy and prompt treatment of women testing positive. Intramuscular penicillin, an(More)
BACKGROUND Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infection causes significant disease globally. Adolescent and adult infection may present as painful genital ulcers. Neonatal infection has high morbidity and mortality. Additionally, HSV-2 likely contributes substantially to the spread of HIV infection. The global burden of HSV-2 infection was last estimated(More)
Gonorrhea, the second most commonly reported notifiable disease, is an important cause of cervicitis, urethritis, and pelvic inflammatory disease. The selection of appropriate therapy for gonorrhea (i.e., safe, highly effective, single dose, and affordable) is complicated by the ability of Neisseria gonorrhoeae to develop resistance to antimicrobial(More)
BACKGROUND Syphilis in pregnancy imposes a significant global health and economic burden. More than half of cases result in serious adverse events, including infant mortality and infection. The annual global burden from mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of syphilis is estimated at 3.6 million disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) and $309 million in(More)
Geneva, drawing heavily on advice and inputs from other WHO Departments, collaborating United Nations (UN) Agencies, and WHO expert advisory groups and academic collaborators. Many of the inputs to these estimates result from collaborations with Interagency Groups, expert advisory groups and academic groups. The most important of these include the(More)
Requests for permission to reproduce or translate WHO publications –whether for sale or for non-commercial distribution– should be addressed to WHO Press through the WHO web site The designations employed and the presentation of the material in this publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the World Health(More)
BACKGROUND Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) commonly causes orolabial ulcers, while HSV-2 commonly causes genital ulcers. However, HSV-1 is an increasing cause of genital infection. Previously, the World Health Organization estimated the global burden of HSV-2 for 2003 and for 2012. The global burden of HSV-1 has not been estimated. METHODS We fitted a(More)