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In Saccharopolyspora erythraea, the genes that govern synthesis of the polyketide portion of the macrolide antibiotic erythromycin are organized in six repeated units that encode fatty acid synthase (FAS)-like activities. Each repeated unit is designated a module, and two modules are contained in a single open reading frame. A model for the synthesis of(More)
Localization of the enzymatic domains in the three multifunctional polypeptides from Saccharopolyspora erythraea involved in the formation of the polyketide portion of the macrolide antibiotic erythromycin was determined by computer-assisted analysis. Comparison of the six synthase units (SU) from the eryA genes with each other and with mono- and(More)
In analyzing the region of the Saccharopolyspora erythraea chromosome responsible for the biosynthesis of the macrolide antibiotic erythromycin, we identified a gene, designated eryK, located about 50 kb downstream of the erythromycin resistance gene, ermE. eryK encodes a 44-kDa protein which, on the basis of comparative analysis, belongs to the P450(More)
The nucleotide sequence on both sides of the eryA polyketide synthase genes of the erythromycin-producing bacterium Saccharopolyspora erythraea reveals the presence of ten genes that are involved in L-mycarose (eryB) and D-desosamine (eryC) biosynthesis or attachment. Mutant strains carrying targeted lesions in eight of these genes indicate that three(More)
Colicinogenic factors ColE1 and ColE2 are bacterial plasmids that exist in Escherichia coli as supercoiled deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and as strand-specific, relaxation complexes of supercoiled DNA and protein. Newly replicated ColE1 DNA becomes complexed with protein after the replication event. This association of DNA and protein can take place under(More)
The 18.1-kilobase plasmid pSE211 integrates into the chromosome of Saccharopolyspora erythraea at a specific attB site. Restriction analysis of the integrated plasmid, pSE211int, and adjacent chromosomal sequences allowed identification of attP, the plasmid attachment site. Nucleotide sequencing of attP, attB, attL, and attR revealed a 57-base-pair sequence(More)
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of sitagliptin when added to insulin therapy alone or in combination with metformin in patients with type 2 diabetes. METHODS After a 2 week placebo run-in period, eligible patients inadequately controlled on long-acting, intermediate-acting or premixed insulin (HbA1c > or = 7.5% and < or = 11%), were(More)
Polyketides fall into two structural classes: aromatic and complex. The former are built mainly from acetate units through a reiterative process wherein the beta-carbonyl groups formed after each condensation cycle are left largely unreduced. Complex polyketides are composed of acetates, propionates, or butyrates, and the extent of beta-carbonyl reduction(More)
An 11.3-kilobase-pair plasmid, designated pSE101, exists in Saccharopolyspora erythraea NRRL 2338 as an integrated sequence (pSE101int) at a unique chromosomal location and in the free form in less than an average of 1 copy per 10 chromosomes. The plasmid sequence is missing from S. erythraea NRRL 2359. Restriction maps of the free and integrated forms of(More)
AIM The aetiology of acute pancreatitis (AP) is complex, and many risk factors for AP are shared by patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, few have assessed risk factors for AP specifically in T2DM patients. METHODS Patients in the General Practice Research Database (2 984 755, 5.0% with T2DM) were used to estimate incidence of AP for(More)