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Neural stem cells (NSCs) expressing GFP were embedded into fibrin matrices containing growth factor cocktails and grafted to sites of severe spinal cord injury. Grafted cells differentiated into multiple cellular phenotypes, including neurons, which extended large numbers of axons over remarkable distances. Extending axons formed abundant synapses with host(More)
UNLABELLED Human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from a healthy 86-year-old male were differentiated into neural stem cells and grafted into adult immunodeficient rats after spinal cord injury. Three months after C5 lateral hemisections, iPSCs survived and differentiated into neurons and glia and extended tens of thousands of axons from the lesion(More)
We subjected rats to either partial midcervical or complete upper thoracic spinal cord transections and examined whether combinatorial treatments support motor axonal regeneration into and beyond the lesion. Subjects received cAMP injections into brainstem reticular motor neurons to stimulate their endogenous growth state, bone marrow stromal cell grafts in(More)
Olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) have been reported to migrate long distances and to bridge lesion sites, guiding axonal regeneration after spinal cord injury (SCI). To understand mechanisms of OEC migration and axonal guidance, we injected lamina propria OECs 1 mm rostral and caudal to C4 SCI sites. One month later, OECs formed an apparent migrating cell(More)
Two reasons may be responsible for the poor grasp of the linguistic concepts related to literacy acquisition by preservice and in-service teachers: a lack of attention given to such concepts by teacher educators (college faculty members) and a lack of relevant information provided in the textbooks used in college courses. In an earlier study, the authors(More)
Steward and colleagues report that implants of E14 rat spinal-cord-derived multipotent neural progenitor cells are associated with ectopic deposits of cells, occasionally at long distances from a T3 spinal cord lesion and grafting site. Of 20 grafted rats, half showed ectopic cell deposits. One rat had a deposit of cells in the 4 ventricle, from which(More)
High-level spinal cord injury can lead to cardiovascular dysfunction, including disordered hemodynamics at rest and autonomic dysreflexia during noxious stimulation. To restore supraspinal control of sympathetic preganglionic neurons (SPNs), we grafted embryonic brainstem-derived neural stem cells (BS-NSCs) or spinal cord-derived neural stem cells (SC-NSCs)(More)
Neural stem cells (NSCs) can self-renew and differentiate into neurons and glia. Transplanted NSCs can replace lost neurons and glia after spinal cord injury (SCI), and can form functional relays to re-connect spinal cord segments above and below a lesion. Previous studies grafting neural stem cells have been limited by incomplete graft survival within the(More)
The immune response of mice to live, heat-killed, or autoclaved Mycobacterium leprae was investigated. After sensitization with 10(7) organisms in each group, recipient mice were transfused with the sensitized splenocytes 28 days later. A selected number of these mice were infected with 5 X 10(3) M. leprae, and the remaining animals were sacrificed at(More)
Replication of published studies is an important and respected aspect of the conduct of science. Most would argue that the interpretation of "negative" outcomes is still more challenging than the interpretation of "positive" findings, however, due to uncertainty in knowing precisely why a hypothesized outcome was not observed: in particular, are "negative"(More)