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Neural stem cells (NSCs) expressing GFP were embedded into fibrin matrices containing growth factor cocktails and grafted to sites of severe spinal cord injury. Grafted cells differentiated into multiple cellular phenotypes, including neurons, which extended large numbers of axons over remarkable distances. Extending axons formed abundant synapses with host(More)
Olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) have been reported to migrate long distances and to bridge lesion sites, guiding axonal regeneration after spinal cord injury (SCI). To understand mechanisms of OEC migration and axonal guidance, we injected lamina propria OECs 1 mm rostral and caudal to C4 SCI sites. One month later, OECs formed an apparent migrating cell(More)
UNLABELLED Human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from a healthy 86-year-old male were differentiated into neural stem cells and grafted into adult immunodeficient rats after spinal cord injury. Three months after C5 lateral hemisections, iPSCs survived and differentiated into neurons and glia and extended tens of thousands of axons from the lesion(More)
CYP2J2 is abundant in human heart and its arachidonic acid metabolites, the epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs), have potent vasodilatory, antiinflammatory and cardioprotective properties. This study was designed to examine the role of CYP2J2 in hypoxia-reoxygenation-induced injury in cultured bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAECs). Early passage BAECs were(More)
We subjected rats to either partial midcervical or complete upper thoracic spinal cord transections and examined whether combinatorial treatments support motor axonal regeneration into and beyond the lesion. Subjects received cAMP injections into brainstem reticular motor neurons to stimulate their endogenous growth state, bone marrow stromal cell grafts in(More)
Steward and colleagues report that implants of E14 rat spinal-cord-derived multipotent neural progenitor cells are associated with ectopic deposits of cells, occasionally at long distances from a T3 spinal cord lesion and grafting site. Of 20 grafted rats, half showed ectopic cell deposits. One rat had a deposit of cells in the 4 th ventricle, from which(More)
High-level spinal cord injury can lead to cardiovascular dysfunction, including disordered hemodynamics at rest and autonomic dysreflexia during noxious stimulation. To restore supraspinal control of sympathetic preganglionic neurons (SPNs), we grafted embryonic brainstem-derived neural stem cells (BS-NSCs) or spinal cord-derived neural stem cells (SC-NSCs)(More)
Replication of published studies is an important and respected aspect of the conduct of science. Most would argue that the interpretation of "negative" outcomes is still more challenging than the interpretation of "positive" findings, however, due to uncertainty in knowing precisely why a hypothesized outcome was not observed: in particular, are "negative"(More)
Neural stem cells (NSCs) can self-renew and differentiate into neurons and glia. Transplanted NSCs can replace lost neurons and glia after spinal cord injury (SCI), and can form functional relays to re-connect spinal cord segments above and below a lesion. Previous studies grafting neural stem cells have been limited by incomplete graft survival within the(More)
Bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) have been reported to exert potential neuroprotective properties in models of neurotrauma, although precise mechanisms underlying their benefits are poorly understood. Despite this lack of knowledge, several clinical trials have been initiated using these cells. To determine whether local mechanisms mediate BMSC(More)