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HIV-1 Nef, a critical AIDS progression factor, represents an important target protein for antiretroviral drug discovery. Because Nef lacks intrinsic enzymatic activity, we developed an assay that couples Nef to the activation of Hck, a Src family member and Nef effector protein. Using this assay, we screened a large, diverse chemical library and identified(More)
Nef is an HIV-1 accessory protein essential for AIDS progression and an attractive target for drug discovery. Lack of a catalytic function makes Nef difficult to assay in chemical library screens. We developed a high-throughput screening assay for inhibitors of Nef function by coupling it to one of its host cell binding partners, the Src-family kinase Hck.(More)
Nef is an HIV-1 virulence factor that promotes viral pathogenicity by altering host cell signaling pathways. Nef binds several members of the Src kinase family, and these interactions have been implicated in the pathogenesis of HIV/AIDS. However, the direct effect of Nef interaction on Src family kinase (SFK) regulation and activity has not been(More)
Treatment of cells with chemotherapy drugs activates the intrinsic mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis and the caspase protease cascade. Recently, the lysosomal protease cathepsin D has been implicated in apoptosis caused by oxidative stress, inhibition of protein kinase C, and stimulation of the TNFR1 and Fas death receptors. However, the role of cathepsin(More)
HIV-1 Nef is a critical AIDS progression factor yet underexplored target for antiretroviral drug discovery. A recent high-throughput screen for pharmacological inhibitors of Nef-dependent Src-family kinase activation identified a diphenylpyrazolodiazene hit compound with submicromolar potency in HIV-1 replication assays against a broad range of primary Nef(More)
The immune receptor signaling pathway is used by nonimmune cells, but the molecular adaptations that underlie its functional diversification are not known. Circulating platelets use the immune receptor homologue glycoprotein VI (GPVI) to respond to collagen exposed at sites of vessel injury. In contrast to immune cell responses, platelet activation must(More)
Human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) has evolved a cunning mechanism to circumvent the antiviral activity of the APOBEC3 family of host cell enzymes. HIV-1 Vif [viral (also called virion) infectivity factor], one of several HIV accessory proteins, targets APOBEC3 proteins for proteasomal degradation and downregulates their expression at the mRNA level.(More)
HIV-1 Nef is a viral accessory protein critical for AIDS progression. Nef lacks intrinsic catalytic activity and binds multiple host cell signaling proteins, including Hck and other Src-family tyrosine kinases. Nef binding induces constitutive Hck activation that may contribute to HIV pathogenesis by promoting viral infectivity, replication and(More)
In the companion paper to this work, we described development of a new type of hydrogen exchange (HX) mass spectrometry (MS) measurement that integrates Langmuir monolayers. With Langmuir monolayers, the lipid packing density can be reproducibly controlled and changed as desired. Analysis of HX in proteins that may undergo conformational changes as a(More)
OBJECTIVE Primary human trophoblasts were previously shown to be resistant to viral infection, and able to confer this resistance to nontrophoblast cells. Can trophoblasts protect nontrophoblastic cells from infection by viruses or other intracellular pathogens that are implicated in perinatal infection? STUDY DESIGN Isolated primary term human(More)