Lorenzo Somaini

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BACKGROUND Pioglitazone and rosiglitazone belong to the class of thiazolidinediones (TZDs). They were first developed as antioxidants and then approved for the clinical treatment of insulin resistance and Type 2 diabetes. TZDs bind with high affinity and activate peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARγ) receptors, which in the brain are(More)
Opiate addiction influences many physiological functions including immune responses. The objective of this study was to investigate the immune system function in heroin addicted patients submitted to methadone or buprenorphine maintenance treatment compared to untreated heroin addicts and healthy controls. Four groups were studied: group A included nine(More)
In the guinea-pig colon, acetylcholine (ACh) release from intrinsic cholinergic motor neurons is inhibited by adrenoceptors, opioid and muscarinic receptors. Chronic sympathetic denervation resulted in supersensitivity to the inhibitory effect of DAMGO (mu-opioid agonist) on ACh release and on the peristaltic reflex. After chronic treatment with naltrexone(More)
Chronic alcohol use has profound modulatory effects on the immune system. Both the innate and the acquired immunity are compromised. The use of pharmacotherapy is increasingly applied to enhance the percentage of success in maintaining alcoholic patients in remission. Disulfiram, naltrexone and gamma hydroxybutiric acid are the drugs used for this purpose(More)
Epidemiological and clinical data show frequent associations between adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and substance abuse susceptibility particularly in adolescents. A large body of evidences suggests that the possible dysregulation of neuroendocrine responses as well as neurotransmitters function induced by childhood traumatic experiences and emotional(More)
Background. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) seems to be a risk condition for substance use disorders, possibly in relationship to common neurobiological changes, underlying both addictive and externalising behaviour susceptibility. Although this vulnerability has been primarily attributed to gene variants, previous studies suggest that also(More)
Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis dysfunction has been reported to be involved in vulnerability to alcohol and drug dependence in humans, possibly underlying both addictive behaviour and depression susceptibility. The aim of the present study was to investigate the possible interactions between childhood adverse experiences, depressive symptoms and(More)
Methadone maintenance therapy (MMT) has been found effective in treating heroin addiction. Serious consideration should be given to the modality of methadone distribution, as it influences not only treatment outcome but the attitudes of policy makers and the community, too. On one hand, the choice of take-home methadone removes the need for daily attendance(More)
The aim of this paper was to investigate the subjective responses of abstinent heroin users to both neutral and negative stimuli and the related hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal reactions to emotional experience in relationship to their perception of childhood adverse experiences. Thirty male abstinent heroin dependents were included in the study. Emotional(More)
The sublingual combination of buprenorphine and naloxone (Suboxone(®)) and Methadone Maintenance Therapy have been found effective in treating heroin addiction. A new analytical method suitable for the simultaneous determination of buprenorphine, norbuprenorphine, methadone and naloxone in human plasma by means of liquid chromatography with coulometric(More)