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Identified neuromuscular junctions were followed in the sternomastoid muscle of living mice for several months by repeated staining with the fluorescent dye 4-(4-diethylaminostyryl)-N-methylpyridinium iodide (4-Di-2-ASP; Magrassi et al., 1987). Overall terminal growth occurred at many endplates; however, the branching pattern of presynaptic arbors was(More)
Different cerebellar phenotypes are generated according to a precise spatiotemporal schedule, in which projection neurons precede local interneurons. Glutamatergic neurons develop from the rhombic lip, whereas GABAergic neurons originate from the ventricular neuroepithelium. Progenitors in these germinal layers are committed toward specific phenotypes(More)
Fusion of bone marrow-derived cells with adult Purkinje cells in the cerebellum gives rise to binucleated Purkinje cells. Whether fusion can be modulated by epigenetic factors and whether fused neurons are stable has remained unclear. Here, we show that in mice and rats, partial ablation of Purkinje cells and local microglial activation in the absence of(More)
In most CNS regions, the variety of inhibitory interneurons originates from separate pools of progenitors residing in discrete germinal domains, where they become committed to specific phenotypes and positions during their last mitosis. We show here that GABAergic interneurons of the rodent cerebellum are generated through a different mechanism. Progenitors(More)
Previously we found that the availability of ShcA adapter is maximal in neural stem cells but that it is absent in mature neurons. Here we report that ShcC, unlike ShcA, is not present in neural stem/progenitor cells, but is expressed after cessation of their division and becomes selectively enriched in mature neurons. Analyses of its activity in(More)
To elucidate the mechanisms that regulate neuronal placement and integration in the cerebellar circuitry, we assessed the fate of Purkinje cells transplanted to embryonic, juvenile and adult hosts, asking how architectural changes of the developing cortex influence their anatomical incorporation. Donor Purkinje cells navigate through the host parenchyma(More)
We have evaluated the efficacy of 18 cationic mitochondrial dyes that, as a class, show some ability to stain living nerve terminals. Several of these agents provide excellent staining of neuromuscular junctions in a wide range of species. More detailed studies of the most effective of these dyes--4-(4-diethylaminostyryl)-N-methylpyridinium iodide(More)
The different cerebellar phenotypes are generated according to a precise time schedule during embryonic and postnatal development. To assess whether the differentiative potential of cerebellar progenitors is progressively restricted in space and time we examined the fate of embryonic day 12 (E12) or postnatal day 4 (P4) cerebellar cells after(More)
Conditionally immortalized (temperature-sensitive) striatal-derived neuronal progenitor cell lines and primary neuroepithelial cells were transplanted into the CNS of gestational day 15-16 rat fetuses using an 'in utero' surgical procedure. Each fetus received 2.5-3 x 10(4) donor cells previously labelled in vitro by incubation with 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine(More)
OBJECTIVE To investigate functional connectivity between the default mode network (DMN) and other networks in disorders of consciousness. METHODS We analyzed MRI data from 11 patients in a vegetative state and 7 patients in a minimally conscious state along with age- and sex-matched healthy control subjects. MRI data analysis included nonlinear spatial(More)