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The goal of typology research is to identify subtypes of alcohol dependent (AD) patients sharing fundamental characteristics and try to match each subtype, with the most precise treatment strategy. This review provides a comprehensive history of the literature on alcohol dependent subtypes starting from the earliest attempt made by Jellinek. The binary(More)
BACKGROUND Intervention to achieve alcohol abstinence represents the most effective treatment for alcohol-dependent patients with liver cirrhosis; however, anticraving drugs might worsen liver disease. We aimed to investigate the effectiveness and safety of baclofen in achieving and maintaining alcohol abstinence in patients with liver cirrhosis. METHODS(More)
Craving plays an important role in the pathogenesis of alcohol dependence and relapse. In this review we have tried to analyse how many contrasting theories have been formulated in order to clarify the concept of craving. Many complex neurobiochemical mechanisms are implicated in the etiology of craving; these mechanisms involve several neurotransmitters,(More)
Alcoholism and stress share some common neurobiological circuits, including the GABAergic system. In particular, the GABA(B) receptor seems to play an important role. The GABA(B) receptor agonist baclofen has been studied as a treatment for alcohol-dependent subjects. Baclofen administration in alcohol-dependent patients was able to promote abstinence,(More)
There is an increasing interest in studying the role of GABAergic medications in the treatment of alcohol dependence. The GABAergic drug gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) has been investigated in Europe as a possible treatment for alcohol dependence. In some European Countries, GHB has been approved as a treatment for alcohol dependence. However, this drug(More)
Increasing evidence supports the role of appetite-regulating pathways, including ghrelin and leptin, in alcoholism. This study tested the hypothesis that intravenous exogenous ghrelin administration acutely decreases endogenous serum leptin levels, and that changes in leptin levels negatively correlate with alcohol craving. This was a double-blind,(More)
Both preclinical and clinical research studies have shown the GABA(B) receptor agonist baclofen represents a promising treatment for alcohol dependence. Preliminary clinical studies indicate that baclofen is able to suppress withdrawal symptoms in alcohol-dependent patients affected by the alcohol withdrawal syndrome. Moreover, baclofen has shown efficacy(More)
Alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AWS) can be a life-threatening condition affecting some alcohol-dependent patients who abruptly discontinue or decrease their alcohol consumption. The main objectives of the clinical management of AWS include: to decrease the severity of symptoms, prevent more severe withdrawal clinical manifestations and facilitate entry of the(More)
Preclinical and clinical studies show that the GABA(B) receptor agonist baclofen may represent a pharmacotherapy for alcohol dependence (AD). However, the mechanisms by which baclofen affects drinking are not well characterized; thus this pilot study investigated possible baclofen's biobehavioral mechanisms. The design was a double-blind controlled(More)
BACKGROUND There is a need to identify novel pharmacologic targets to treat alcoholism. Animal and human studies suggest a role for ghrelin in the neurobiology of alcohol dependence and craving. Here, we were the first to test the hypothesis that intravenous administration of exogenous ghrelin acutely increases alcohol craving. METHODS This was a(More)