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The goal of typology research is to identify subtypes of alcohol dependent (AD) patients sharing fundamental characteristics and try to match each subtype, with the most precise treatment strategy. This review provides a comprehensive history of the literature on alcohol dependent subtypes starting from the earliest attempt made by Jellinek. The binary(More)
AIMS To explore the effect of baclofen in a dose of 20 mg three times per day, compared with the already studied dose of 10 mg three times per day, in the treatment of alcohol dependence. METHODS We present a secondary analysis of a 12-week double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial with two doses of baclofen, specifically 10 mg t.i.d.(More)
BACKGROUND Intervention to achieve alcohol abstinence represents the most effective treatment for alcohol-dependent patients with liver cirrhosis; however, anticraving drugs might worsen liver disease. We aimed to investigate the effectiveness and safety of baclofen in achieving and maintaining alcohol abstinence in patients with liver cirrhosis. METHODS(More)
Craving plays an important role in the pathogenesis of alcohol dependence and relapse. In this review we have tried to analyse how many contrasting theories have been formulated in order to clarify the concept of craving. Many complex neurobiochemical mechanisms are implicated in the etiology of craving; these mechanisms involve several neurotransmitters,(More)
Blockade of corticotropin-releasing factor receptor 1 (CRF1) suppresses stress-induced alcohol seeking in rodents, but clinical translation remains. Here, we first showed that the CRF1 antagonist verucerfont potently blocks hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis activation in adrenalectomized rats. We then evaluated verucerfont for its ability to block(More)
Alcoholism and stress share some common neurobiological circuits, including the GABAergic system. In particular, the GABA(B) receptor seems to play an important role. The GABA(B) receptor agonist baclofen has been studied as a treatment for alcohol-dependent subjects. Baclofen administration in alcohol-dependent patients was able to promote abstinence,(More)
There is an increasing interest in studying the role of GABAergic medications in the treatment of alcohol dependence. The GABAergic drug gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) has been investigated in Europe as a possible treatment for alcohol dependence. In some European Countries, GHB has been approved as a treatment for alcohol dependence. However, this drug(More)
Increasing evidence supports the role of appetite-regulating pathways, including ghrelin and leptin, in alcoholism. This study tested the hypothesis that intravenous exogenous ghrelin administration acutely decreases endogenous serum leptin levels, and that changes in leptin levels negatively correlate with alcohol craving. This was a double-blind,(More)
Both preclinical and clinical research studies have shown the GABA(B) receptor agonist baclofen represents a promising treatment for alcohol dependence. Preliminary clinical studies indicate that baclofen is able to suppress withdrawal symptoms in alcohol-dependent patients affected by the alcohol withdrawal syndrome. Moreover, baclofen has shown efficacy(More)
Alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AWS) can be a life-threatening condition affecting some alcohol-dependent patients who abruptly discontinue or decrease their alcohol consumption. The main objectives of the clinical management of AWS include: to decrease the severity of symptoms, prevent more severe withdrawal clinical manifestations and facilitate entry of the(More)