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To acquire information on the relationships between structural maturation of proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and their transport along the secretory pathway, we have analyzed the destiny of an assembly-defective form of the trimeric vacuolar storage glycoprotein phaseolin. In leaves of transgenic tobacco, where assembly-competent phaseolin is(More)
BACKGROUND Tonoplast intrinsic proteins (TIPs) are widely used as markers for vacuolar compartments in higher plants. Ten TIP isoforms are encoded by the Arabidopsis genome. For several isoforms, the tissue and cell specific pattern of expression are not known. RESULTS We generated fluorescent protein fusions to the genomic sequences of all members of the(More)
Ricin is a heterodimeric toxin that accumulates in the storage vacuoles of castor bean (Ricinus communis) endosperm. Proricin is synthesized as a single polypeptide precursor comprising the catalytic A chain and the Gal-binding B chain joined by a 12-amino acid linker propeptide. Upon arrival in the vacuole, the linker is removed. Here, we replicate these(More)
Tail-anchored (TA) proteins are bound to membranes by a hydrophobic sequence located very close to the C-terminus, followed by a short luminal polar region. Their active domains are exposed to the cytosol. TA proteins are synthesized on free cytosolic ribosomes and are found on the surface of every subcellular compartment, where they play various roles. The(More)
aERD2 and aSARl of Arabidopsis are functional homologs of yeast genes encoding proteins essential for endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-to-Golgi transport. The regulation of these secretory pathway genes in yeast, mammals, and plants is not known. High levels of expression of aERD2 and aSARl were observed in roots, flowers, and inflorescence stems, with the(More)
Using anti-SP28 (a polyclonal antibody to a 28 residue synthetic peptide homologous to the NH2-terminal region of the Alzheimer amyloid beta-protein) to investigate the cerebral cortex of 6 Down patients aged 6-55 y, we found that, besides senile plaques and congophilic vessels, extracellular deposits unrelated to degenerating neurites, tangle-bearing(More)
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in higher plants performs many important functions, yet our understanding of how its intricate network shape and dynamics relate to function is very limited. Recent work has begun to unpick key molecular players in the generation of the pleomorphic, highly dynamic ER network structure that pervades the entire cytoplasm. ER(More)
We have assessed the ability of the plant secretory pathway to handle the expression of complex heterologous proteins by investigating the fate of a hybrid immunoglobulin A/G in tobacco cells. Although plant cells can express large amounts of the antibody, a relevant proportion is normally lost to vacuolar sorting and degradation. Here we show that the(More)
BACKGROUND Plants may represent excellent alternatives to classical heterologous protein expression systems, especially for the production of biopharmaceuticals and vaccine components. Modern vaccines are becoming increasingly complex, with the incorporation of multiple antigens. Approaches towards developing an HIV vaccine appear to confirm this, with a(More)