Lorenzo D Botto

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The enzyme 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is involved in folate metabolism. The MTHFR gene is located on chromosome 1 (1p36.3), and two common alleles, the C677T (thermolabile) allele and the A1298C allele, have been described. The population frequency of C677T homozygosity ranges from 1% or less among Blacks from Africa and the United(More)
BACKGROUND Documenting the prevalence and trends of congenital heart defects provides useful data for pediatric practice, health-care planning, and causal research. Yet, most population-based studies use data from the 1970s and 1980s. We sought to extend into more recent years the study of temporal and racial variations of heart defects occurrence in a(More)
OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to examine associations between diabetes mellitus and 39 birth defects. STUDY DESIGN This was a multicenter case-control study of mothers of infants who were born with (n = 13,030) and without (n = 4895) birth defects in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study (1997-2003). RESULTS Pregestational diabetes(More)
Prevention of congenital cardiovascular defects has been hampered by a lack of information about modifiable risk factors for abnormalities in cardiac development. Over the past decade, there have been major breakthroughs in the understanding of inherited causes of congenital heart disease, including the identification of specific genetic abnormalities for(More)
Associations between ambient air pollution levels during weeks 3-7 of pregnancy and risks of cardiovascular malformations were investigated among the cohort of pregnancies reaching at least 20 weeks' gestation that were conceived during January 1, 1986-March 12, 2003, in Atlanta, Georgia. Surveillance records obtained from the Metropolitan Atlanta(More)
BACKGROUND Classification and analysis of congenital heart defects (CHD) in etiologic studies is particularly challenging because of diversity of cardiac phenotypes and underlying developmental mechanisms. We describe an approach to classification for risk assessment of CHD based on developmental and epidemiologic considerations, and apply it to data from(More)
OBJECTIVE Several studies have shown an increased risk for neural tube defects associated with prepregnancy maternal obesity. Because few recent studies have examined the relation between maternal prepregnancy obesity and overweight and other birth defects, we explored the relation for several birth defects and compared our findings with those of previous(More)
BACKGROUND In the United States and Canada, folic acid fortification of enriched grain products was fully implemented by 1998. The resulting population-wide reduction in blood homocysteine concentrations might be expected to reduce stroke mortality if high homocysteine levels are an independent risk factor for stroke. METHODS AND RESULTS In this(More)