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A study of genic variation in natural population of D. melanogaster was undertaken (1) to obtain a better estimate of heterozygosity by sampling a relatively large number of gene loci and (2) to identify different groups of polymorphic loci whose variation patterns might suggest different kinds of selection forces. A total of 117 gene loci (coding for 79(More)
Vandenberg et al. (2012) claim that "most if not all [endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs)] are likely to have low-dose effects" and "nonmonotonicity is a common occurrence after exposures to hormones and EDCs in cell culture and animals and across human populations." They present examples as anecdotes without attempting to review all available pertinent(More)
Recent scientific debate has focused on the potential for inhaled formaldehyde to cause lymphohematopoietic cancers, particularly leukemias, in humans. The concern stems from certain epidemiology studies reporting an association, although particulars of endpoints and dosimetry are inconsistent across studies and several other studies show no such effects.(More)
The nature of the exposure-response relationship has a profound influence on risk analyses. Several arguments have been proffered as to why all exposure-response relationships for both cancer and noncarcinogenic endpoints should be assumed to be linear at low doses. We focused on three arguments that have been put forth for noncarcinogens. First, the(More)
The National Academy of Sciences (NAS) Review of the Environmental Protection Agency's Draft IRIS Assessment of Formaldehyde proposed a "roadmap" for reform and improvement of the Agency's risk assessment process. Specifically, it called for development of a transparent and defensible methodology for weight-of-evidence (WoE) assessments. To facilitate(More)
We used a hypothesis-based weight-of-evidence (HBWoE) approach to analyze the evidence regarding the hypothesis that chlorpyrifos can cause neurodevelopmental effects below the threshold for inhibition of acetylcholinesterase activity in the nervous system, which is an established mode of action for chlorpyrifos neurotoxicity. The epidemiology data do not(More)
Early in 2013, the World Health Organization (WHO) released a 2012 update to the 2002 State of the Science of Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals. Several significant concerns have been identified that raise questions about conclusions reached in this report regarding endocrine disruption. First, the report is not a state-of-the-science review and does not(More)
Human health risk assessment consists of bringing to bear a large body of in vitro, animal, and epidemiologic studies on the question of whether environmental exposures to a substance are a potential risk to humans. The body of scientific information is typically less than definitive and often contains apparent contradictions. Often various possible(More)
Recent public concern has focused on potential reproductive and developmental effects from exposure to low levels of bisphenol A (BPA, CAS number 80-05-7). Two previous published reviews (Gray et al., 2004a; Goodman et al., 2006) conducted weight-of-evidence evaluations of in vivo reproductive/developmental toxicity from BPA exposure < or = 5 mg/kg-d based(More)