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Virion-associated peptidoglycan hydrolases (VAPGH) are phage-encoded lytic enzymes that locally degrade the peptidoglycan (PG) of the bacterial cell wall during infection. In contrast to endolysins, PGHs that mediate lysis of the host bacteria at the end of the lytic cycle to release of phage progeny, the action of VAPGHs generates a small hole through(More)
The role of virion-associated peptidoglycan hydrolases (VAPGHs) in the phage infection cycle is not clear. gp49, the VAPGH from Staphylococcus aureus phage 11, is not essential for phage growth but stabilizes the viral particles. 11Δ49 phages showed a reduced burst size and delayed host lysis. Complementation of gp49 with HydH5 from bacteriophage(More)
The increase in antibiotic resistance world-wide revitalized the interest in the use of phage lysins to combat pathogenic bacteria. In this work, we analyzed the specific cleavage sites on the staphylococcal peptidoglycan produced by three phage lytic proteins. The investigated cell wall lytic enzymes were the endolysin LysH5 derived from the S. aureus(More)
Peptidoglycan (PG) is the major structural component of the bacterial cell wall. Bacteria have autolytic PG hydrolases that allow the cell to grow and divide. A well-studied group of PG hydrolase enzymes are the bacteriophage endolysins. Endolysins are PG-degrading proteins that allow the phage to escape from the bacterial cell during the phage lytic cycle.(More)
One of the last untapped reservoirs in nature for the identification of new anti-microbials is bacteriophages, the natural killers of bacteria. Lytic bacteriophages encode peptidoglycan (PG) lytic enzymes able to degrade the PG layer in different steps of their infection cycle. Endolysins degrade the bacterial cell wall at the end of the infection cycle,(More)
Bacteriophage endolysins have an interesting potential as antimicrobials. The endolysin LysH5, encoded by Staphylococcus aureus phage vB_SauS-phi-IPLA88, was expressed and secreted in Lactococcus lactis using the signal peptide of bacteriocin lactococcin 972 and lactococcal constitutive and inducible promoters. Up to 80 U/mg of extracellular active(More)
Virion-associated peptidoglycan hydrolases have potential as antimicrobial agents due to their ability to lyse Gram-positive bacteria on contact. In this work, our aim was to improve the lytic activity of HydH5, a virion-associated peptidoglycan hydrolase from the Staphylococcus aureus bacteriophage vB_SauS-phiIPLA88. Full-length HydH5 and two truncated(More)
Bacteriophage lytic enzymes have recently attracted considerable interest as novel antimicrobials against Gram-positive bacteria. In this work, antimicrobial activity in milk of HydH5 [a virion-associated peptidoglycan hydrolase (VAPGH) encoded by the Staphylococcus aureus bacteriophage vB_SauS-phiIPLA88], and three different fusion proteins created between(More)
Tailed double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) bacteriophages frequently harbor structural proteins displaying peptidoglycan hydrolytic activities. The tape measure protein from Staphylococcus aureus bacteriophage vB_SauS-phiIPLA35 has a lysozyme-like and a peptidase_M23 domain. This report shows that the lysozyme-like domain (TG1) has muramidase activity and exhibits(More)
Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus are important causative agents of hospital-acquired infections and bacteremia, likely due to their ability to form biofilms. The production of a dense exopolysaccharide (EPS) matrix enclosing the cells slows the penetration of antibiotic down, resulting in therapy failure. The EPS depolymerase (Dpo7)(More)