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Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) induces a dose-dependent relaxation in cholecystokinin-induced tension in guinea pig gallbladder strips in vitro. This effect seems to be modulated, in part, via activation of the nonadrenergic noncholinergic nervous system. Blockers of nitric oxide synthesis significantly reduced the CGRP effect. Increases in nitric(More)
Progesterone (P) has an inhibitory effect on the contractility of gastrointestinal smooth muscle, including the gallbladder. Since P levels are elevated during pregnancy, a biliary stasis may develop during pregnancy that is characterized by an increase in the fasting and residual volumes and by a decrease in emptying capacity. This study investigates the(More)
Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) was found extensively in the small intestine of both non-mammalian and mammalian vertebrates using radioimmunoassay and immunocytochemistry. By radioimmunoassay, the levels of CGRP in rats, mice, chickens, bullfrogs and rainbow trout were found to range from 91.5 to 419.1 ng/g tissue. To localize CGRP in the small(More)
Testosterone (T) has been shown to cause vasodilation in rabbit coronary arteries through a nongenomic pathway. Part of this T-induced relaxation was shown to be mediated by opening voltage dependent K(+) channels. T infusion also reduces peripheral resistance in human males with heart failure. The effects of T or its active metabolite 5-alpha(More)
Estrogen has been shown to have an inhibitory effect on the contractility of gastrointestinal smooth muscle, including the gallbladder. Since estrogen and progesterone levels are elevated during pregnancy, a biliary stasis may develop during pregnancy that is characterized by an increase in the fasting and residual volumes and by a decrease in emptying(More)
Progesterone (P), 17β-estradiol (E2), and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) affect gallbladder motility. When gallbladders were taken from women and men, women had more estrogen and P receptors than men. Both P and E2 had an inhibitory effect upon gallbladder contractility in men and premenopausal and postmenopausal women. Similar findings have been reported in(More)
Parathyroid hormone (PTH) and parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) have been shown to relax various types of smooth muscle, e.g. vascular, uterine and gastric. This study demonstrates that PTH and PTHrP both relaxed cholecystokinin octapeptide (CCK)-induced tension in guinea pig gallbladder strips. This relaxation was concentration-dependent. The use(More)
BACKGROUND/AIMS Resveratrol (3,5,4'-trihydroxystilbene) is a polyphenolic compound (stilbene) and a phytoalexin. The purpose of this study was to determine the mechanism which mediated the resveratrol-induced relaxation of cholecystokinin octapeptide- or KCl-induced tension in male guinea pig gallbladder strips. METHODS Gallbladder strips were prepared(More)
The bioflavonoids have effects on vascular smooth muscle and gastrointestinal smooth muscle. The flavone and phytoestrogen, chrysin, has been shown to have a vasorelaxant effect on resistance blood vessels. This effect was mediated by nitric oxide (NO). Chrysin inhibited aromatase/estrogen biosynthesis in postmenopausal women. The purpose of this study was(More)
Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) has been shown to relax cholecystokinin-induced tension in guinea pig gallbladder strips. This relaxation is dependent on the concentration of CGRP, and is primarily due to the opening of ATP sensitive K+ channels; however, other mechanisms may also be involved. Studies using forskolin, 8-bromoadenosine 3', 5' cyclic(More)