Loren W. Kline

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Progesterone (P) has an inhibitory effect on the contractility of gastrointestinal smooth muscle, including the gallbladder. Since P levels are elevated during pregnancy, a biliary stasis may develop during pregnancy that is characterized by an increase in the fasting and residual volumes and by a decrease in emptying capacity. This study investigates the(More)
Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) relaxes vascular and intestinal smooth muscle. This study localized CGRP in the guinea pig gallbladder, examined the effects of CGRP on KCl- and ACh-induced contraction, and determined CGRPs site of action in the gallbladder. The gallbladder of male Hartley guinea pigs was used in in vitro tension studies,(More)
Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) induces a dose-dependent relaxation in cholecystokinin-induced tension in guinea pig gallbladder strips in vitro. This effect seems to be modulated, in part, via activation of the nonadrenergic noncholinergic nervous system. Blockers of nitric oxide synthesis significantly reduced the CGRP effect. Increases in nitric(More)
Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) was shown to relax guinea pig gallbladder strips contracted with cholecystokinin. This relaxation was mediated by PACAP interacting with VIP/PACAP receptors. PACAP was also shown to cause contraction in guinea pig gallbladder strips. The present study demonstrated that calphostin C and(More)
Calcitonin gene related peptide has been shown to relax vascular and intestinal smooth muscle. This study examines the effects of calcitonin gene related peptide on cholecystokinin-induced contraction of guinea pig gallbladder strips in vitro. Calcitonin gene related peptide was found to cause a dose-dependent relaxation of cholecystokinin-induced tension,(More)
The vasoactive properties of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) were examined using the helical strip of the rat tail artery as a model. CGRP was found to inhibit norepinephrine-induced contraction but not KCl- or vasopressin-induced contraction. No significant inhibition occurred in either KCl- or norepinephrine-stimulated strips when Ca2+ was added(More)
Testosterone (T) has been shown to cause vasodilation in rabbit coronary arteries through a nongenomic pathway. Part of this T-induced relaxation was shown to be mediated by opening voltage dependent K(+) channels. T infusion also reduces peripheral resistance in human males with heart failure. The effects of T or its active metabolite 5-alpha(More)
Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) was found extensively in the small intestine of both non-mammalian and mammalian vertebrates using radioimmunoassay and immunocytochemistry. By radioimmunoassay, the levels of CGRP in rats, mice, chickens, bullfrogs and rainbow trout were found to range from 91.5 to 419.1 ng/g tissue. To localize CGRP in the small(More)
Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) was found using radioimmunoassay in the brain and spinal cord of the bullfrog, Rana catesbeiana. The brain extracts were found to contain 241.7 +/- 68.1 pg/mg tissue, and the spinal cord contained 1753.0 +/- 96.8 pg/mg tissue. An intense immunocytochemical reaction was observed in the dorsal spinal cord. Vascular(More)