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Most species of plants and animals differ in their KARYOTYPES 1,2 (see Glossary). This observation, combined with evidence that chromosomal rearrangements might reduce the fertility of heterozygous hybrids (Box 1), has led some researchers to argue for a causative role for chromosomal change in SPECIATION 1,3. For example, White concludes 1 that chromosomal(More)
The origin of new homoploid species via hybridization is theoretically difficult because it requires the development of reproductive isolation in sympatry. Nonetheless , this mode is often and carelessly used by botanists to account for the formation of species that are morphologically intermediate with respect to related congeners. Here, I review(More)
Of the approximately 250,000 species of flowering plants, nearly one in ten are members of the Compositae (Asteraceae), a diverse family found in almost every habitat on all continents except Antarctica. With an origin in the mid Eocene, the Compositae is also a relatively young family with remarkable diversifications during the last 40 My. Previous(More)
Hybridization is frequent in many organismal groups, but its role in adaptation is poorly understood. In sunflowers, species found in the most extreme habitats are ancient hybrids, and new gene combinations generated by hybridization are speculated to have contributed to ecological divergence. This possibility was tested through phenotypic and genomic(More)
Genetic analyses of reproductive barriers represent one of the few methods by which theories of speciation can be tested. However, genetic study is often restricted to model organisms that have short generation times and are easily propagated in the laboratory. Replicate hybrid zones with a diversity of recombinant genotypes of varying age offer increased(More)
Genetic architecture may profoundly influence the ability of adaptive traits to spread between species via introgressive hybridization. Here, we examine the genomic location of quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with pollen sterility and morphological traits distinguishing two annual sunflowers, Helianthus annuus and H. debilis ssp. cucumerifolius.(More)
More than 67,000 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) have recently been generated for sunflower (Helianthus), including 44,000 from cultivated confectionery (RHA280) and oilseed (RHA801) lines of Helianthus annuus and 23,000 from drought- and salt-tolerant wild sunflowers, H. argophyllus and H. paradoxus, respectively. To create a transcript map for sunflower,(More)
Like the formation of animal species, plant speciation is characterized by the evolution of barriers to genetic exchange between previously interbreeding populations. Prezygotic barriers, which impede mating or fertilization between species, typically contribute more to total reproductive isolation in plants than do postzygotic barriers, in which hybrid(More)
Genes are expected to face stronger selective constraint and to evolve more slowly if they encode enzymes upstream as opposed to downstream in metabolic pathways, because upstream genes are more pleiotropic, being required for a wider range of end products. However, few clear examples of this trend in evolutionary rate variation exist. We examined whether(More)
Simple sequence repeats (SSRs) are abundant and frequently highly polymorphic in transcribed sequences and widely targeted for marker development in eukaryotes. Sunflower (Helianthus annuus) transcript assemblies were built and mined to identify SSRs and insertions-deletions (INDELs) for marker development, comparative mapping, and other genomics(More)