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The origin of new homoploid species via hybridization is theoretically difficult because it requires the development of reproductive isolation in sympatry. Nonetheless , this mode is often and carelessly used by botanists to account for the formation of species that are morphologically intermediate with respect to related congeners. Here, I review(More)
Most species of plants and animals differ in their KARYOTYPES 1,2 (see Glossary). This observation, combined with evidence that chromosomal rearrangements might reduce the fertility of heterozygous hybrids (Box 1), has led some researchers to argue for a causative role for chromosomal change in SPECIATION 1,3. For example, White concludes 1 that chromosomal(More)
The production of extreme or 'transgressive' phenotypes in segregating hybrid populations has been speculated to contribute to niche divergence of hybrid lineages. Here, we assess the frequency of transgressive segregation in hybrid populations, describe its genetic basis and discuss the factors that best predict its occurrence. From a survey of 171 studies(More)
Hybridization is frequent in many organismal groups, but its role in adaptation is poorly understood. In sunflowers, species found in the most extreme habitats are ancient hybrids, and new gene combinations generated by hybridization are speculated to have contributed to ecological divergence. This possibility was tested through phenotypic and genomic(More)
Asexual seed production (agamospermy) via gametophytic apomixis in flowering plants typically involves the formation of an unreduced megagametophyte (via apospory or diplospory) and the parthenogenetic development of the unreduced egg cell into an embryo. Agamospermy is almost exclusively restricted to polyploids. In this study, the genetic basis of(More)
The traditional view that species are held together through gene flow has been challenged by observations that migration is too restricted among populations of many species to prevent local divergence. However, only very low levels of gene flow are necessary to permit the spread of highly advantageous alleles, providing an alternative means by which(More)
Genetic architecture may profoundly influence the ability of adaptive traits to spread between species via introgressive hybridization. Here, we examine the genomic location of quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with pollen sterility and morphological traits distinguishing two annual sunflowers, Helianthus annuus and H. debilis ssp. cucumerifolius.(More)
Of the approximately 250,000 species of flowering plants, nearly one in ten are members of the Compositae (Asteraceae), a diverse family found in almost every habitat on all continents except Antarctica. With an origin in the mid Eocene, the Compositae is also a relatively young family with remarkable diversifications during the last 40 My. Previous(More)
More than 67,000 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) have recently been generated for sunflower (Helianthus), including 44,000 from cultivated confectionery (RHA280) and oilseed (RHA801) lines of Helianthus annuus and 23,000 from drought- and salt-tolerant wild sunflowers, H. argophyllus and H. paradoxus, respectively. To create a transcript map for sunflower,(More)
Genetic analyses of reproductive barriers represent one of the few methods by which theories of speciation can be tested. However, genetic study is often restricted to model organisms that have short generation times and are easily propagated in the laboratory. Replicate hybrid zones with a diversity of recombinant genotypes of varying age offer increased(More)