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BACKGROUND The adaptive immune system is central to the development of coeliac disease. Adaptive immune responses are, however, controlled by a preceding activation of the innate immune system. We investigated whether gliadin, a protein present in wheat flour, could activate an innate as well as an adaptive immune response in patients with coeliac disease.(More)
In family studies, phenotypic similarities between relatives yield information on the overall contribution of genes to trait variation. Large samples are important for these family studies, especially when comparing heritability between subgroups such as young and old, or males and females. We recruited a cohort of 6,148 participants, aged 14-102 y, from(More)
A procedure is presented which modifies the Sternberger peroxidase--antiperoxidase (PAP) technique in order to visualize additional amounts of immunodeposits representing the antigen substance (SP) in 5-micrometer paraffin tissue sections of rat spinal cord. For increased sensitivity, the new procedure utilizes a "double bridge" and diaminobenzidine in low(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS In celiac disease (CD), transglutaminase type II (TG2) has 2 fundamental roles: (1) as the autoantigen recognized by highly specific autoantibodies and (2) the modifier of pathogenic gliadin T-cell epitopes. It follows that inhibition of TG2 might represent an attractive strategy to curb the toxic action of gliadin. Here we studied the(More)
In celiac disease (CD) we have the prototype of an immune mediated response dominated by the activation of the adaptive immune system and in particular of CD4+ HLA class II restricted T cells. Various seminal studies have established the precise mechanism of how antigen (prolamine) specific activation of CD4+ mucosal T cells occurs. Thus, CD is a condition(More)
The occurrence and distribution of substance P (SP)-like, methionine-(Met)- and leucine-(Leu)-enkephalin-like, and FMRFamide-like immunoreactivities were determined in the neuroendocrine complex of the eyestalk of the fiddler crab, Uca pugilator, by immunocytochemistry. SP-like immunoreactivity was found in the optic peduncle, sinus gland, medulla externa,(More)
Immunoperoxidase techniques are presented which can be used to localize horseradish peroxidase-tracer in paraffin-embedded tissues of the central nervous system. Compared to histochemical methods using frozen sections, these immunologic techniques allow the use of stored, serial paraffin sections, and appear more sensitive for the demonstration of(More)
Potential founder population effects on personality trait means and variances were examined in a large, genetically homogeneous sample (N=5,669) from the Ogliastra, an isolated region within Sardinia, Italy. The Italian version of the Revised NEO Personality Inventory showed good psychometric properties: Internal consistency reliabilities ranged from 0.80(More)
At the light microscope level, the minute concentrations of substance P (SP) in rat spinal ventral horn can be visualized best by amplification with the double bridge PAP method of Vacca et al. (1975; 1980) in 5 microns paraffin tissue sections. Morphologically, the immunoreactive sites resemble punctate bodies. They occur in close apposition with the large(More)