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In obesity and type 2 diabetes, expression of the GLUT4 glucose transporter is decreased selectively in adipocytes. Adipose-specific Glut4 (also known as Slc2a4) knockout (adipose-Glut4(-/-)) mice show insulin resistance secondarily in muscle and liver. Here we show, using DNA arrays, that expression of retinol binding protein-4 (RBP4) is elevated in(More)
Although the major tissue site of retinol binding protein (RBP) synthesis in the body is the liver, other sites of synthesis have been reported. The physiological role(s) of circulating RBP that is produced and secreted extrahepatically has not been systematically investigated. To address this question, we used as a model a mouse strain (hRBP(-/-)) that(More)
The nuclear receptor ligand retinoic acid (RA) has been identified as an endogenous regulatory factor in the hippocampus, acting on pyramidal neurons and granule neuron progenitors, but almost nothing is known about the distribution of RA itself in the hippocampus. This study describes the source of RA for the rodent hippocampus in the meninges via the key(More)
The function of small intestinal monoacylglycerol lipase (MGL) is unknown. Its expression in this tissue is surprising because one of the primary functions of the small intestine is to convert diet-derived MGs to triacylglycerol (TG), and not to degrade them. To elucidate the function of intestinal MGL, we generated transgenic mice that over-express MGL(More)
Mice exhibit multiple nonvisual responses to light, including 1) photoentrainment of circadian rhythm; 2) "masking," which refers to the acute effect of light on behavior, either negative (activity suppressing) or positive (activity inducing); and 3) pupillary constriction. In mammals, the eye is the sole photosensory organ for these responses, and it(More)
Vitamin A (retinol) is required to maintain immunity and epithelial turnover and is a key micronutrient needed for combating infection. Vitamin A actions on the immune system are diverse and cannot be accounted for by a single effect or mechanism. The actions of retinol in maintaining gut integrity in humans and immunoglobulin levels in mice was(More)
Medullary thyroid carcinomas (MTC) occur sporadically or as part of inherited multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) type 2 syndromes. To recognize misdiagnosed familial cases and to establish the frequency of somatic mutations, a series of 50 patients, clinically diagnosed with sporadic MTC, were analyzed for mutations in the RET proto-oncogene. The clinical(More)
Obesity is a major and independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease and it is strongly associated with the development of dyslipidemia, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Flavonoids, a diverse group of polyphenol compounds of plant origin widely distributed in human diet, have been reported to have numerous health benefits, although the(More)
There is increasing evidence that vitamin A deficiency in utero correlates with abnormal airway smooth muscle (SM) function in postnatal life. The bioactive vitamin A metabolite retinoic acid (RA) is essential for formation of the lung primordium; however, little is known about the impact of early fetal RA deficiency on postnatal lung structure and(More)
We describe a patient affected by multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A (MEN 2A) bearing a heterozygous germline mutation (Cys(634)Arg) in exon 11 and an additional somatic mutation of the RET protooncogene. A large intragenic deletion, spanning exon 4 to exon 16, affected the normal allele and was detected by quantitative PCR, Southern blot analysis, and(More)