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In obesity and type 2 diabetes, expression of the GLUT4 glucose transporter is decreased selectively in adipocytes. Adipose-specific Glut4 (also known as Slc2a4) knockout (adipose-Glut4(-/-)) mice show insulin resistance secondarily in muscle and liver. Here we show, using DNA arrays, that expression of retinol binding protein-4 (RBP4) is elevated in(More)
Retinol-binding protein (RBP) is the sole specific transport protein for retinol (vitamin A) in the circulation, and its single known function is to deliver retinol to tissues. Within tissues, retinol is activated to retinoic acid, which binds to nuclear receptors to regulate transcription of >300 diverse target genes. In the eye, retinol is also activated(More)
Although the major tissue site of retinol binding protein (RBP) synthesis in the body is the liver, other sites of synthesis have been reported. The physiological role(s) of circulating RBP that is produced and secreted extrahepatically has not been systematically investigated. To address this question, we used as a model a mouse strain (hRBP(-/-)) that(More)
Retinoids are required for normal embryonic development. Both embryonic retinoid deficiency and excess result in congenital malformations. There is little understanding of the physiology underlying retinoid transfer from the maternal circulation to the embryo. We now report studies that explore this process using retinol-binding protein-deficient (RBP-/-)(More)
OBJECTIVES To evaluate whether serum RBP4 correlates with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in a cohort of borderline obese (BMI>30) pregnant women. DESIGN AND METHODS Serum RBP4 and retinol were measured in pregnant women with (n=12) and without (n=10) GDM. RESULTS RBP4, retinol and RBP4:retinol molar ratio were not different between the groups and(More)
Vitamin A (retinol) is required to maintain immunity and epithelial turnover and is a key micronutrient needed for combating infection. Vitamin A actions on the immune system are diverse and cannot be accounted for by a single effect or mechanism. The actions of retinol in maintaining gut integrity in humans and immunoglobulin levels in mice was(More)
Retinoids (vitamin A and its derivatives) play an essential role in many biological functions. However mammals are incapable of de novo synthesis of vitamin A and must acquire it from the diet. In the intestine, dietary retinoids are incorporated in chylomicrons as retinyl esters, along with other dietary lipids. The majority of dietary retinoid is cleared(More)
We reported previously that mice lacking plasma retinol-binding protein (RBP) are phenotypically normal except that they display impaired vision at the time of weaning. This visual defect is associated with greatly diminished eyecup levels of retinaldehyde and is reversible if the mutants are maintained for several months on a vitamin A-sufficient diet.(More)
The nuclear receptor ligand retinoic acid (RA) has been identified as an endogenous regulatory factor in the hippocampus, acting on pyramidal neurons and granule neuron progenitors, but almost nothing is known about the distribution of RA itself in the hippocampus. This study describes the source of RA for the rodent hippocampus in the meninges via the key(More)
Specific mutations in the ret protooncogene have been found associated with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A (MEN 2A) and type 2B (MEN 2B) and familial medullary thyroid carcinoma (FMTC). Mutations in one of five cysteine residues in the extracellular domain have been found in over 95% of families with MEN 2A and 88% of families with FMTC. In MEN 2B(More)