Lorayne Barton

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Stereotypic and self-injurious behaviors are common forms of maladaptive responding demonstrated by severely handicapped persons. Various review papers suggest that no single treatment procedure is universally effective. Although there may be many reasons for this finding, one could be that people engage in these behaviors for various reasons, and that(More)
OBJECTIVE We sought to determine the contribution of withholding or withdrawing care to neonatal mortality in our hospital over a 10-year period from 1993 through 2002. BACKGROUND Although not initiating or withholding intensive care for certain newborns has been practiced openly for the past 25 years, little information has been published concerning the(More)
The relative effectiveness of two methods of programming DRO schedules of reinforcement was examined in two experiments. In these two methods, reinforcement is delivered if inappropriate responding is not occurring (a) at the end of an interval (momentary DRO), or (b) throughout the entire interval (whole-interval DRO). In Experiment 1, the effects of these(More)
In the last several years, various organizations have produced strikingly similar documents by which institutions for retarded persons are judged for licensure. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether residential units that were licensed differed from residential units that were not licensed in terms of the active programming behaviors of(More)
The differential reinforcement of other behavior (DRO) is a behavior-reduction procedure that has been popular for several years. In classroom settings, it provides reinforcement when a student does not display inappropriate responding for a particular interval of time. Unfortunately, relatively little is known about how to use DRO effectively in applied(More)
Differential reinforcement of other behavior (DRO) involves delivery of reinforcement at the end of an interval during which the target behavior has not occurred. Momentary DRO, however, is a procedure in which reinforcement is delivered if a response did not occur at the end of an interval. We examined the extent to which momentary DRO maintained(More)
This study explored the effectiveness and classroom applicability of a combination of DRO and momentary restraint procedures to reduce the stereotypic responding of four severely or profoundly mentally retarded, multihandicapped students aged 6-16 years. Modifications were made in the application of both of the procedures in order for them to be usable by(More)
A naturalistic study, with two purposes, was conducted to evaluate communication between staff and retarded persons in an institutional and in a community setting. The first purpose was to determine the natural rates of attention from staff in the form of instructions. Results showed that verbal instruction was the most prevalent (67%) followed by verbal(More)
(2015). "Heteroaggregation, transformation and fate of CeO2 nanoparticles in wastewater treatment." Environmental Pollution 203: 122-129. carbon and oxygen stable isotopes for climate reconstruction in the Canadian northeastern boreal forest. DNA damage and oxidative stress induced by CeO2 nanoparticles in human dermal fibroblasts: Evidence of a clastogenic(More)