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Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) provides a range of strategies for investigating the structural organization of biological systems, varying from isolated macromolecules to tissue organization and whole organisms. This review covers some of the results so far obtained using FE-SEM observation and various protocols of sample fixation to(More)
Sox2 is an important transcriptional regulator in embryonic and adult stem cells. Recently, Sox2 was identified as an oncogene in many endodermal cancers, including colon cancer. There is great interest in how Sox2 cooperates with other transcription factors to regulate stem cell renewal, differentiation, and reprogramming. However, we still lack a general(More)
Suramin has been previously reported to inhibit distinct cell enzymes and to affect the synthesis and distribution of cytoskeleton proteins. Our study indicates that prolonged incubation of Trypanosoma cruzi infected-LLC-MK2 cells in the presence of 500 microM suramin during the intracellular development of the parasite caused morphological changes on(More)
Astrocytes, members of the glial family, interact through the exchange of soluble factors or by directly contacting neurons and other brain cells, such as microglia and endothelial cells. Astrocytic projections interact with vessels and act as additional elements of the Blood Brain Barrier (BBB). By mechanisms not fully understood, astrocytes can undergo(More)
The Giardia lamblia life cycle is characterized by two phases during which two major cell differentiation processes take place: encystation and excystation. During encystation, the trophozoites transform into cysts, the resistance form. Once ingested by a susceptible host, the cysts are stimulated to excyst in the stomach, and the excysted trophozoites(More)
The association of high resolution field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), with a more efficient system of secondary electron (SE) collection and in-lens specimen position, provided a great improvement in the specimen's topographical contrast and in the generation of high-resolution images. In addition, images obtained with the use of the(More)
We investigate properties of a reported new mechanism for cell-cell interactions, tunneling nanotubes (TNT's). TNT's mediate actin-based transfer of vesicles and organelles and they allow signal transmission between cells. The effects of lateral pulling with polystyrene beads trapped by optical tweezers on TNT's linking separate U-87 MG human glioblastoma(More)
BACKGROUND The ability to grow a uniform cell type from the adult central nervous system (CNS) is valuable for developing cell therapies and new strategies for drug discovery. The adult mammalian brain is a source of neural stem cells (NSC) found in both neurogenic and non-neurogenic zones but difficulties in culturing these hinders their use as research(More)
Giardia lamblia is a flagellated protozoan of great medical and biological importance. It is the causative agent of giardiasis, one of the most prevalent diarrheal disease both in developed and third-world countries. Morphological studies have shown that G. lamblia does not present structures such as peroxisomes, mitochondria, and a well-elaborated Golgi(More)
Synaptophysin, an integral protein of the synaptic vesicle membrane, and synapsin I, a phosphoprotein associated with the cytoplasmic side of synaptic vesicles, represent useful markers that allow to follow the movements of the vesicle membrane during recycling. The use of antibodies against these proteins to label nerve terminals during experimental(More)