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Sox2 is an important transcriptional regulator in embryonic and adult stem cells. Recently, Sox2 was identified as an oncogene in many endodermal cancers, including colon cancer. There is great interest in how Sox2 cooperates with other transcription factors to regulate stem cell renewal, differentiation, and reprogramming. However, we still lack a general(More)
Importance Recent studies have reported an increase in the number of fetuses and neonates with microcephaly whose mothers were infected with the Zika virus (ZIKV) during pregnancy. To our knowledge, most reports to date have focused on select aspects of the maternal or fetal infection and fetal effects. Objective To describe the prenatal evolution and(More)
BACKGROUND The ability to grow a uniform cell type from the adult central nervous system (CNS) is valuable for developing cell therapies and new strategies for drug discovery. The adult mammalian brain is a source of neural stem cells (NSC) found in both neurogenic and non-neurogenic zones but difficulties in culturing these hinders their use as research(More)
Synaptophysin, an integral protein of the synaptic vesicle membrane, and synapsin I, a phosphoprotein associated with the cytoplasmic side of synaptic vesicles, represent useful markers that allow to follow the movements of the vesicle membrane during recycling. The use of antibodies against these proteins to label nerve terminals during experimental(More)
Astrocytes, members of the glial family, interact through the exchange of soluble factors or by directly contacting neurons and other brain cells, such as microglia and endothelial cells. Astrocytic projections interact with vessels and act as additional elements of the Blood Brain Barrier (BBB). By mechanisms not fully understood, astrocytes can undergo(More)
Glioblastomas (GBMs) are devastating tumors of the central nervous system, with a poor prognosis of 1-year survival. This results from a high resistance of GBM tumor cells to current therapeutic options, including etoposide (VP-16). Understanding resistance mechanisms may thus open new therapeutic avenues. VP-16 is a topoisomerase inhibitor that causes(More)
Video-microscopy in combination with digital image processing was used to analyze dynamic processes associated to the life cycle of Giardia lamblia trophozoites. These parasites swim and attach to the epithelial cells, producing the disease known as Giardiasis. Giardia is a multiflagellar cell, presenting 4 pairs of flagella. With the use of analogue and(More)
This work presents a computerized method to identify, detect, evaluate, and, by colored overlay, present gold particle pairs in electron microscopy (EM), even in wide-field views. Double gold immunolabeled specimens were analyzed in a LEO 912 electron microscope equipped with a 2k x 2k-pixel slow-scan cooled CCD camera connected to a computer with analySIS(More)
1 2 Zika virus (ZIKV) infection in utero might lead to microcephaly and other 1 3 congenital defects. In adults, cases of Guillain-Barré syndrome and meningoencephalitis 1 4 associated with ZIKV infection have been reported, and no specific therapy is available so 1 5 far. There is urgency for the discovery of antiviral agents capable of inhibiting viral 1(More)
Federal do Rio de Janeiro. # These authors contributed equally to this work. Abstract: In the last few months, an overwhelming number of people have been exposed to the Zika virus (ZIKV) in South and Central America. Here we showed, in vitro, that a Brazilian isolate impacts more severely murine neuronal progenitors and neurons than the peer-reviewed) is(More)