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This article describes a system of diagnostic categories that Medicaid programs can use for adjusting capitation payments to health plans that enroll people with disability. Medicaid claims from Colorado, Michigan, Missouri, New York, and Ohio are analyzed to demonstrate that the greater predictability of costs among people with disabilities makes risk(More)
This article describes the Chronic Illness and Disability Payment System (CDPS), a diagnostic classification system that Medicaid programs can use to make health-based capitated payments for TANF and disabled Medicaid beneficiaries. The authors describe the diversity of diagnoses and different burdens of illness among disabled and AFDC Medicaid(More)
BACKGROUND Identifying ethnic differences in the age of smoking onset from nationally representative data can lead to improved targeted prevention programs and policies to combat smoking in ethnic communities. METHODS Analyzing data from the Tobacco Use Supplements of the U.S. Census Bureau's Current Population Surveys throughout the 1990s, differences in(More)
BACKGROUND Considerable controversy surrounds tobacco control emphasis on youth-access-to-tobacco laws, as there is limited evidence that such enforcement reduces youth smoking. In California, access-law enforcement increased substantially in 1996 compared to earlier in the decade. METHODS Two longitudinal cohorts of adolescent never smokers from the(More)
AIM To compare predictors of smoking initiation in two longitudinal studies in California conducted during periods when adolescent smoking prevalence was increasing (1993-96) and decreasing (1996-99). DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS Cohorts of 12-15-year-old never smokers were identified from the cross-sectional 1993 and 1996 California Tobacco Surveys(More)
Real cigarette prices in the US increased from the early 1980s to early 1990s. Holding all else equal, adolescent initiation of regular smoking should have declined during this period. Using national population-based surveys (n = 336 343) conducted in the 1990s, we present trends (early 1960s to mid-1990s) in the initiation of regular smoking among(More)
BACKGROUND It is not clear whether the decline in African American adolescent smoking in the 1980s reflected a delay in age of onset of regular smoking initiation rather than success in preventing initiation completely. PURPOSE The purpose of this study is to identify whether the marked reductions in African American adolescent smoking in the 1980s were(More)
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