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The role of the nerve growth factor family of neurotrophins in the development of cochlear and vestibular ganglia is unclear. In order to predict the potential importance of nerve growth factor, brain-derived neurotrophic factor or neurotrophin-3, we examined the expression of neurotrophin mRNA and full-length neurotrophin receptor mRNA by in-situ(More)
Astrocyte activation plays important roles both in physiological and pathological process in the CNS. In the latter, the process is further aggravated by hyperglycemia, leading to diabetes complications of CNS. We report here that high glucose (HG) treatment stimulated astrocytic morphological alteration coupled with changes in glial fibrillary acidic(More)
To determine the role of neurotrophins on the initial development of the avian embryo, RT-PCR was used to detect when mRNA for nerve growth factor (NGF), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and neurotrophin-3 (NT-3), as well as their respective receptors, trkA, trkB, and trkC, is first expressed in the avian embryo. trkA, BDNF, trkB, NT-3, and trkC(More)
The nerve growth factor (NGF) family of neurotrophins exerts effects by binding to products of the trk family of proto-oncogenes. We examined the expression of both trk and neurotrophin mRNA during the entire range of development of quail dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and sympathetic ganglia (SG) using in situ hybridization and reverse transcriptase-polymerase(More)
Hepatic expression profiling has revealed miRNA changes in liver diseases, while hepatic miR-155 expression was increased in murine non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, suggesting that miR-155 might regulate the biological process of lipid metabolism. To illustrate the effects of miR-155 gain of function in transgenic mouse liver on lipid metabolism,(More)
N-stearoyltyrosine (NsTyr), an anandamide (AEA) analogue is similar to AEA not only structurally but also in terms of biological activity. Since A beta-induced neuronal injury triggers the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways and the induction or activation of pro- and anti-apoptotic proteins, in the present study we aimed to(More)
We have previously demonstrated the presence of mRNA for the full-length neurotrophin receptors trkA, trkB and trkC in quail embryos from stages 1 through 6 using reverse transcription followed by the polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR; Yao et al. [1994] Dev. Biol. 165: 727-730). Furthermore, we showed that mRNA for the neurotrophins brain-derived(More)
This study examined the effects of nerve growth factor, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, neurotrophin-3 and neurotrophin-4/5 on substance P levels in dorsal root ganglia of the quail shortly after ganglia formation (stage 26, embryonic day 4.5), during the middle of development (stage 33, embryonic day 7.5) and during late development (stage 44, embryonic(More)
Dorsal root ganglia (DRG) midway through development require nerve growth factor (NGF) for survival and differentiation. These studies investigated when avian neural crest cells or DRG first exhibit high affinity NGF receptors in situ, and whether early embryonic cells expressing high affinity NGF receptors are responsive to NGF. Unfixed cryostat sections(More)
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