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The effects of the vitamin E isomer δ-tocopherol on neural stem cell (NSC) differentiation have not been investigated until now. Here we investigated the effects of δ-tocopherol on NSC neural differentiation, maturation and its possible mechanisms. Neonatal rat NSCs were grown in suspended neurosphere cultures, and were identified by their expression of(More)
Human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) can be used to understand the pathological mechanisms of human disease. These cells are a promising source for cell-replacement therapy. However, such studies require genetically defined conditions. Such genetic manipulations can be performed using the novel Transcription Activator-Like Effector Nucleases(More)
P2X receptors are trimeric ATP-gated cation permeable ion channels. When ATP binds, the extracellular head and dorsal fin domains are predicted to move closer to each other. However, there are scant functional data corroborating the role of the dorsal fin in ligand binding. Here using site-directed mutagenesis and electrophysiology, we show that a dorsal(More)
P2X receptors are cation-permeable ion channels gated by extracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Available crystallographic data suggest that ATP-binding ectodomain is connected to the transmembrane pore domain by three structurally conserved linker regions, which additionally frame the lateral fenestrations through which permeating ions enter the(More)
P2X receptors are trimeric ATP-activated non-selective cation channels. The ATP binding pocket is positioned between two neighboring subunits. Accompanying ligand binding, subunit-subunit contacts are most likely involved in receptor function and drive a conformational change to open the ion permeation pathway. In this way, we sought to determine the(More)
Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats, associated proteins (CRISPR/Cas), has been developed into a powerful, targeted genome-editing tool in a wide variety of species. Here, we report an extensive investigation of the type II CRISPR/Cas9 system for targeted gene editing in Streptomyces rimosus. S. rimosus is used in the production of the(More)
As the computing systems become more and more complex, new technology and approach are desired to construct the system, so as to make them more reliable or self-healable. A modeling framework to generating self-healing system is proposed in this paper. The model framework consists of function model, fault model, self-healing model, model composition(More)
This work presents chaos synchronization between the uncertain chaotic Lorenz system and the certain chaotic third-order Cellular Neural Networks (CNN) via adaptive control. Based on Lyapunov stability theory, an adaptive controller and parameters estimation update laws for unknown parameters are given such that the two different chaotic systems are to be(More)