P2X receptors are trimeric ATP-gated cation permeable ion channels. When ATP binds, the extracellular head and dorsal fin domains are predicted to move closer to each other. However, there are scant functional data corroborating the role of the dorsal fin in ligand binding. Here using site-directed mutagenesis and electrophysiology, we show that a dorsal… (More)
P2X receptors are cation-permeable ion channels gated by extracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Available crystallographic data suggest that ATP-binding ectodomain is connected to the transmembrane pore domain by three structurally conserved linker regions, which additionally frame the lateral fenestrations through which permeating ions enter the… (More)
P2X receptors are trimeric ATP-activated non-selective cation channels. The ATP binding pocket is positioned between two neighboring subunits. Accompanying ligand binding, subunit-subunit contacts are most likely involved in receptor function and drive a conformational change to open the ion permeation pathway. In this way, we sought to determine the… (More)
This Article contains errors in the labelling of the RT-PCR analysis in Figure 4g. In the second lane, '+ Nor' should read ' AP'. In the third lane, ' AP should read 'NC'. The correct Figure 4g appears below as Figure 1. Figure 1.
Chronic hyperglycemia increases apoptosis and reduces glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Although protective agents have been searched extensively, none has been found so far. Here we tested FLZ, a synthetic derivative of squamosamide from a Chinese herb, as a potential candidate for antiglucotoxicity in INS-1E cells and mouse islets. Chronic culture of… (More)
Human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) can be used to understand the pathological mechanisms of human disease. These cells are a promising source for cell-replacement therapy. However, such studies require genetically defined conditions. Such genetic manipulations can be performed using the novel Transcription Activator-Like Effector Nucleases… (More)
As the computing systems become more and more complex, new technology and approach are desired to construct the system, so as to make them more reliable or self-healable. A modeling framework to generating self-healing system is proposed in this paper. The model framework consists of function model, fault model, self-healing model, model composition… (More)