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Trace fear memory requires the activity of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and is sensitive to attention-distracting stimuli. Fragile X syndrome is the most common form of mental retardation with many patients exhibiting attention deficits. Previous studies in fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1) knock-out (KO) mice, a mouse model for fragile X,(More)
Cortical plasticity is thought to be important for the establishment, consolidation, and retrieval of permanent memory. Hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP), a cellular mechanism of learning and memory, requires the activation of glutamate N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors. In particular, it has been suggested that NR2A-containing NMDA receptors are(More)
Presynaptic nerve terminals of inhibitory synapses in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord and brain stem can release both GABA and glycine, leading to coactivation of postsynaptic GABAA and glycine receptors. In the present study we have analyzed functional interactions between GABAA and glycine receptors in acutely dissociated neurons from rat sacral dorsal(More)
Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels are a large family of ion channel proteins, surpassed in number in mammals only by voltage-gated potassium channels. TRP channels are activated and regulated through strikingly diverse mechanisms, making them suitable candidates for cellular sensors. They respond to environmental stimuli such as temperature, pH,(More)
The cellular basis underlying the complex clinical symptomatology of bipolar disorder and the mechanisms underlying the actions of its effective treatments have not yet been fully elucidated. This study investigated the role of hippocampal synaptic AMPA receptors. We found that chronic administration of the antimanic agents lithium and valproate (VPA)(More)
Microglial cells are the resident macrophages that are involved in brain injuries and infections. Recent studies using transcranial two-photon microscopy have shown that ATP and P2Y receptors mediated rapid chemotactic responses of miroglia to local injury. However, the molecular mechanism for microglial chemotaxis toward ATP is still unknown. To address(More)
Many ionotropic receptors are modulated by extracellular H+. So far, few studies have directly addressed the role of such modulation at synapses. In the present study, we investigated the effects of changes in extracellular pH on glycinergic miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents (mIPSCs) as well as glycine-evoked currents (IGly) in mechanically(More)
Previous studies have suggested that calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV (CaMKIV) functions as a positive regulator for memory formation and that age-related memory deficits are the result of dysfunctional signaling pathways mediated by cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB), the downstream transcription factor of CaMKIV. Little is known,(More)
Microglia are well known for their roles in brain injuries and infections. However, there is no function attributes to resting microglia thus far. Here we performed a combination of simultaneous electrophysiology and time-lapse confocal imaging in green fluorescent protein-labeled microglia in acute hippocampal slices. In contrast to CA1 neurons, microglia(More)
Learning and memory are fundamental brain functions affected by dietary and environmental factors. Here, we show that increasing brain magnesium using a newly developed magnesium compound (magnesium-L-threonate, MgT) leads to the enhancement of learning abilities, working memory, and short- and long-term memory in rats. The pattern completion ability was(More)