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The prevalence of obesity is increasing rapidly in both industrialized and developing nations. Obesity causes complex metabolic, endocrine, and hemodynamic changes that may lead to adverse cardiovascular outcomes such as coronary heart disease and congestive heart failure. Adipose tissue is no longer considered to be an inert organ of energy storage, but in(More)
Anomalous origin of coronary arteries is discovered incidentally during coronary arteriography or at autopsy, and awareness among angiographers is required. We describe a case with a rare combination of a single coronary artery originating from the right sinus of Valsalva associated with an absent left anterior descending artery and a secundum-type atrial(More)
The heart failure disease state is challenging, time consuming and expensive to manage. Physicians are responsible for initiating, titrating and optimizing drug and device therapy to reduce morbidity and mortality. Failure to manage these aspects of care often results in worsening of symptoms and recurrent hospitalizations. This paper reviews the data(More)
Congestive heart failure remains a primary cause of cardiovascular-related events. Heart failure patients face two health care challenges. First, they are uncertain about their prognosis and second, they have an unpredictable clinical course with recurrent exacerbations of heart failure. The echocardiogram is an easily accessible bedside test without any(More)
BACKGROUND Atrial septal aneurysm is typically diagnosed by transthoracic two-dimensional or transesophageal echocardiography (2DE or TEE). Such techniques are highly dependent on visual inspection which predisposes to observer variation. This study compares inter- and intraobserver variations in the measurement of maximum atrial septal excursion (MASE)(More)
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