Lokesh Agrawal

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Human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) is the most frequent cause of dementia in adults under 40. We sought to use gene delivery to protect from HIV-1-related neuron loss. Because HIV-1 envelope (Env) gp120 elicits oxidant stress and apoptosis in cultured neurons, we established reproducible parameters of Env-mediated neurotoxicity in vivo, then tested(More)
Human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) infection in the central nervous system (CNS) may lead to neuronal loss and progressively deteriorating CNS function: HIV-1 gene products, especially gp120, induce free radical-mediated apoptosis. Reactive oxygen species (ROS), are among the potential mediators of these effects. Neurons readily form ROS after gp120(More)
We examined the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in loss of dopaminergic neurons (DNs) from the substantia nigra (SN) in neuroAIDS. The frequency of Parkinson-like symptomatology, and DN loss, in neuroAIDS is often attributed to nonspecific DN fragility to oxidative stress. Cultured DN are more sensitive to ROS than non-dopaminergic neurons (RN): DN(More)
Chemokines may play a role in leukocyte migration across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) during neuroinflammation and other neuropathological processes, such as epilepsy. We investigated the role of the chemokine receptor CCR5 in seizures. We used a rat model based on intraperitoneal kainic acid (KA) administration. Four months before KA injection, adult rats(More)
HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) is an increasingly common, progressive disease characterized by neuronal loss and progressively deteriorating CNS function. HIV-1 gene products, particularly gp120 and Tat elicit reactive oxygen species (ROS) that lead to oxidant injury and cause neuron apoptosis. Understanding of, and developing therapies for,(More)
Gene transfer to the central nervous system (CNS) has been approached using various vectors. Recombinant SV40-derived vectors (rSV40s) transduce neurons and microglia effectively in vitro, so we tested rSV40s gene transfer to the CNS in vivo, and characterized the distribution, duration and cell types transduced. We used rSV40s carrying Human(More)
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are implicated in diverse processes, such as neuroinflammation, leakiness of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and direct cellular damage in neurodegenerative and other CNS diseases. Tissue destruction by MMPs is regulated by their endogenous tissue inhibitors (TIMPs). TIMPs prevent excessive MMP-related degradation of(More)
CCR3 has been implicated as a co-receptor for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), particularly in brain microglia cells. We sought to clarify the comparative roles of CCR3 and CCR5 in the central nervous system (CNS) HIV-1 infection and the potential utility of CCR3 as a target for manipulation via gene transfer. To target CCR3, we developed a(More)
HIV-1 effects on the blood-brain barrier (BBB) structure and function are still poorly understood in animal models based on direct administration of recombinant HIV proteins. We therefore injected HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein, gp120, into rat caudate-putamens (CPs) and examined vascular integrity and function. Gp120 coimmunostained with endothelial cell(More)
Human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) encephalopathy is thought to result in part from the toxicity of HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein gp120 for neurons. Experimental systems for studying the effects of gp120 and other HIV proteins on the brain have been limited to the acute effects of recombinant proteins in vitro or in vivo in simian immunodeficiency(More)