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spxB-encoded pyruvate oxidase is a major virulence factor of Streptococcus pneumoniae. During aerobic growth, SpxB synthesizes H2O2 and acetyl phosphate, which play roles in metabolism, signalling, and oxidative stress. We report here the first cis- and trans-acting regulatory elements for spxB transcription. These elements were identified in a genetic(More)
We report a search for small RNAs (sRNAs) in the low-GC, gram-positive human pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae. Based on bioinformatic analyses by Livny et al. (J. Livny, A. Brencic, S. Lory, and M. K. Waldor, Nucleic Acids Res. 34:3484-3493, 2006), we tested 40 candidates by Northern blotting and confirmed the expression of nine new and one previously(More)
Bacterial surface polysaccharides are synthesized from lipid-linked precursors at the inner surface of the cytoplasmic membrane before being translocated across the bilayer for envelope assembly. Transport of the cell wall precursor lipid II in Escherichia coli requires the broadly conserved and essential multidrug/oligosaccharidyl-lipid/polysaccharide(More)
Copper resistance has emerged as an important virulence determinant of microbial pathogens. In Streptococcus pneumoniae, copper resistance is mediated by the copper-responsive repressor CopY, CupA and the copper-effluxing P(1B)-type ATPase CopA. We show here that CupA is a previously uncharacterized cell membrane-anchored Cu(I) chaperone and that a Cu(I)(More)
The connection between peptidoglycan remodeling and cell division is poorly understood in ellipsoid-shaped ovococcus bacteria, such as the human respiratory pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae. In S. pneumoniae, peptidoglycan homeostasis and stress are regulated by the WalRK (VicRK) two-component regulatory system, which positively regulates expression of the(More)
Peptidoglycan (PG) hydrolases play critical roles in the remodeling of bacterial cell walls during division. PG hydrolases have been studied extensively in several bacillus species, such as Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis, but remain relatively uncharacterized in ovococcus species, such as Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus). In this work, we(More)
Peptidoglycan (PG) is a polysaccharide matrix that protects bacteria from osmotic lysis. Inhibition of its biogenesis is a proven strategy for killing bacteria with antibiotics. The assembly of PG requires disaccharide-pentapeptide building blocks attached to a polyisoprene lipid carrier called lipid II. Although the stages of lipid II synthesis are known,(More)
Bacterial cell shapes are manifestations of programs carried out by multi-protein machines that synthesize and remodel the resilient peptidoglycan (PG) mesh and other polymers surrounding cells. GpsB protein is conserved in low-GC Gram-positive bacteria and is not essential in rod-shaped Bacillus subtilis, where it plays a role in shuttling(More)
The peptidoglycan cell wall is a common target for antibiotic therapy, but its structure and assembly are only partially understood. Peptidoglycan synthesis requires a suite of penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs), the individual roles of which are difficult to determine because each enzyme is often dispensable for growth perhaps due to functional redundancy.(More)
The peptidoglycan (PG) sacculus, a meshwork of polysaccharide strands cross-linked by short peptides, protects bacterial cells against osmotic lysis. To enlarge this covalently closed macromolecule, PG hydrolases must break peptide cross-links in the meshwork to allow insertion of new glycan strands between the existing ones. In the rod-shaped bacterium(More)