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spxB-encoded pyruvate oxidase is a major virulence factor of Streptococcus pneumoniae. During aerobic growth, SpxB synthesizes H2O2 and acetyl phosphate, which play roles in metabolism, signalling, and oxidative stress. We report here the first cis- and trans-acting regulatory elements for spxB transcription. These elements were identified in a genetic(More)
Peptidoglycan (PG) is a polysaccharide matrix that protects bacteria from osmotic lysis. Inhibition of its biogenesis is a proven strategy for killing bacteria with antibiotics. The assembly of PG requires disaccharide-pentapeptide building blocks attached to a polyisoprene lipid carrier called lipid II. Although the stages of lipid II synthesis are known,(More)
Bacterial surface polysaccharides are synthesized from lipid-linked precursors at the inner surface of the cytoplasmic membrane before being translocated across the bilayer for envelope assembly. Transport of the cell wall precursor lipid II in Escherichia coli requires the broadly conserved and essential multidrug/oligosaccharidyl-lipid/polysaccharide(More)
The WalRK two-component system plays important roles in maintaining cell wall homeostasis and responding to antibiotic stress in low-GC Gram-positive bacteria. In the major human pathogen, Streptococcus pneumoniae, phosphorylated WalR(Spn) (VicR) response regulator positively controls the transcription of genes encoding the essential PcsB division protein(More)
The connection between peptidoglycan remodeling and cell division is poorly understood in ellipsoid-shaped ovococcus bacteria, such as the human respiratory pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae. In S. pneumoniae, peptidoglycan homeostasis and stress are regulated by the WalRK (VicRK) two-component regulatory system, which positively regulates expression of the(More)
Bacterial cell shapes are manifestations of programs carried out by multi-protein machines that synthesize and remodel the resilient peptidoglycan (PG) mesh and other polymers surrounding cells. GpsB protein is conserved in low-GC Gram-positive bacteria and is not essential in rod-shaped Bacillus subtilis, where it plays a role in shuttling(More)
The bacterial flagellum is a complex molecular machine that is assembled by more than 30 proteins and is rotated to propel cells either through liquids or over solid surfaces. Flagellar gene expression is extensively regulated to co-ordinate flagellar assembly in both space and time. In Bacillus subtilis, the proteins of unknown function, SwrA and SwrB, and(More)
The peptidoglycan (PG) sacculus, a meshwork of polysaccharide strands cross-linked by short peptides, protects bacterial cells against osmotic lysis. To enlarge this covalently closed macromolecule, PG hydrolases must break peptide cross-links in the meshwork to allow insertion of new glycan strands between the existing ones. In the rod-shaped bacterium(More)
Peptidoglycan (PG) hydrolases play critical roles in the remodeling of bacterial cell walls during division. PG hydrolases have been studied extensively in several bacillus species, such as Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis, but remain relatively uncharacterized in ovococcus species, such as Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus). In this work, we(More)
Copper resistance has emerged as an important virulence determinant of microbial pathogens. In Streptococcus pneumoniae, copper resistance is mediated by the copper-responsive repressor CopY, CupA and the copper-effluxing P(1B)-type ATPase CopA. We show here that CupA is a previously uncharacterized cell membrane-anchored Cu(I) chaperone and that a Cu(I)(More)