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Fast bowling is fundamental to all forms of cricket. The purpose of this study was to identify parameters that contribute to high ball release speeds in cricket fast bowlers. We assessed anthropometric dimensions, concentric and eccentric isokinetic strength of selected knee and shoulder muscle groups, and specific aspects of technique from a single(More)
Pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-1 beta can act in the brain (centrally) to cause fever. Sickness behaviors which accompany fever also appear to involve the central action of IL-1 beta. We injected species-homologous rat IL-6 and IL-1 beta directly into the brains of conscious rats to examine the effect of these cytokines on fever, and(More)
Although it has been established that some acute phase responses present differently depending on whether a virus or bacteria activates the innate immune system, it has not yet been established whether fever and sickness behaviors, such as anorexia and lethargy, present differently. We therefore investigated the effects of administering lipopolysaccharide(More)
Pro-inflammatory cytokines, interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) synthesized by activated macrophages and monocytes in response to administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), are considered important mediators of fever and sickness behavior. We administered rat-specific antisera for TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, IL-6 and leptin,(More)
Although peripherally released interleukin (IL)-6 is critical for fever, its role in sickness behaviors, in particular anorexia and lethargy, induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) administration appears to be less important. Using quantifiable measures of fever, anorexia and lethargy, that is, body temperature, food intake and voluntary wheel-running, we(More)
Although fever and sickness behavior are common responses to infection, it has been proposed that the sickness behaviors associated with infection, in particular lethargy and fatigue, may be more valuable clinical markers of illness and recovery in patients, than is body temperature alone. Measuring abdominal temperature, food intake and wheel running we(More)
Whereas the role played by interleukin (IL)-10 in modulating fever and sickness behavior has been linked to it targeting the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the circulation, liver and spleen, it is not known whether it could directly target the local production of pro-inflammatory cytokines within the sensory circumventricular organs (CVOs)(More)
Obesity is reaching dramatic proportions in humans and is associated with a higher risk for cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and cognitive alterations, and a higher mortality during infection and inflammation. The focus of the present review is on the influence of obesity on the presentation of fever, sickness behavior, and inflammatory responses during(More)
The functional significance for activation of inflammatory transcription factors, such as signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT3), nuclear factor (NF)κB or NF-interleukin (IL)6 and their contribution to the induction of brain controlled sickness responses, such as fever, during infection and inflammation is unknown. Using AG490, previously(More)
Fever has been recognized as an important symptom of disease since ancient times. For many years, fever was treated as a putative life-threatening phenomenon. More recently, it has been recognized as an important part of the body's defense mechanisms; indeed at times it has even been used as a therapeutic agent. The knowledge of the functional role of the(More)