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Building on prior conceptual schemes, this article presents a sociomedical model of disability, called The Disablement Process, that is especially useful for epidemiological and clinical research. The Disablement Process: (1) describes how chronic and acute conditions affect functioning in specific body systems, generic physical and mental actions, and(More)
Recent reviews of scientific work on subjective well-being (SWB) reveal disagreements in conceptualization, measurement, and explanation of the concept. We propose Social Production Function theory as a framework to resolve them. Social Production Function (SPF) theory integrates strengths of relevant psychological theories and economic consumer/household(More)
OBJECTIVES Personal and equipment assistance are often used to reduce disability. This study predicts use of assistance, type of assistance, and its efficacy (improvement with assistance) for disabilities in personal care and household management tasks. METHODS U.S. community-dwellers aged 55+ are studied using the 1994-1995 National Health Interview(More)
This article examines how often physicians prescribe therapeutic drugs to men and women who present the same complaints or receive the same diagnoses. Data are from the 1975 National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey and pertain to visits made by U.S. adults to office-based physicians that year. For most common complaints and diagnoses, women receive(More)
This study examines cross-sectional age differences, longitudinal age changes, and secular changes in obligatory, committed, and discretionary activities, using activity questionnaire completed by men and women participants in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging between 1958 and 1992. (1) Time spent, on obligatory activities and passive leisure is(More)
"It isn't true, couldn't be; there must be other variables not taken into account that confound the results. " This was the remark of an incredulous psychiatrist colleague to the statement that there is reasoned evidence of inequalities in health care based on patient gender. His reaction aligns with that of health professionals' and researchers' longing(More)
There is speculation that women receive different medical care than men because physicians have stereotyped views about women's symptoms and treatment preferences. This paper asks if men and women who visit physicians for mental distress receive comparable medical care and, if not, whether medical considerations or psychosocial ones explain the differences.(More)
2 This paper is dedicated to the late J. Clyde Mitchell who welcomed me to British network analysis in 1974 and continued as a friend, enthusiastic member of INSNA, and frequent contributor to Connections until his death in 1995. I also appreciate the advice, comments, editing, and continued support of Bev Wellman. 2 Some time ago, Steve Borgatti — then(More)
This study examined relationships between three sensory and communication abilities and two areas of nursing home resident behavior. Data from 18,873 nursing home residents include measures of hearing, visual, and communication abilities, and social engagement and time spent in activities. Increasing level of visual impairment is associated with low levels(More)
INTRODUCTION we have tested the hypothesis that the co-occurrence of common impairments (motor and cognitive impairments, vision and hearing loss, depressive symptoms) of later life have exacerbating effects on disability [activities and instrumental activities of daily living, social and role function, (in)activity]. METHOD data were drawn from a(More)