Lois J. Arend

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OBJECTIVE Safer and more effective therapies are needed for the treatment of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). B lymphocytes have been shown to play fundamental pathogenic roles in SLE, and therefore, elimination of B cells with the use of rituximab may represent a new therapy for SLE. METHODS A phase I/II dose-escalation trial of rituximab added to(More)
BACKGROUND Current antihumoral therapies in transplantation and autoimmune disease do not target the mature antibody-producing plasma cell. Bortezomib is a first in class proteosomal inhibitor, that is Food and Drug Administration approved, for the treatment of plasma cell-derived tumors that is multiple myeloma. We report the first clinical experience with(More)
BACKGROUND Alloantibody-mediated acute rejection is a major cause of renal allograft loss despite aggressive therapy. Patients with humoral rejection can be identified with high sensitivity and specificity by the presence of peritubular capillary C4d staining on renal biopsy and donor-specific anti-human leukocyte antigen antibodies. Standard therapy for(More)
Reducing luminal NaCl concentration in the macula densa region of the nephron stimulates renin secretion, and this response is blocked by a specific inhibitor of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) (Traynor, T. R., Smart, A., Briggs, J. P., and Schnermann, J. (1999) Am. J. Physiol. Renal Physiol. 277, F706-710). To study whether low NaCl activates COX-2 activity or(More)
UNLABELLED Renal involvement by sarcoidosis in native and transplanted kidneys classically presents as non caseating granulomatous interstitial nephritis. However, the incidence of sarcoidosis in native and transplant kidney biopsies, its frequency as a cause of end stage renal disease and its recurrence in renal allograft are not well defined, which(More)
The effect of the adenosine type 1 receptor agonist N6-cyclohexyladenosine (CHA) on glomerular vascular reactivity was studied in male angiotensin II type 1A (AT1A) receptor knockout mice (9). Vascular reactivity was assessed as the response of stop-flow pressure (PSF) to infusion of CHA into loops of Henle using micropuncture techniques. In AT1A +/+ mice(More)
OBJECTIVE Recent studies indicate an important role for nuclear receptors in regulating lipid and carbohydrate metabolism, fibrosis, and inflammation. Farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is a member of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily. FXR is highly expressed in the liver, intestine, adrenal gland, and kidney. The primary bile acids are the highest affinity(More)
BACKGROUND Haemodialysis vascular access dysfunction (due to venous stenosis and thrombosis) is a leading cause of hospitalization and morbidity. The aim of the current study was to identify the specific cell types present within stenotic tissue samples from patients with AV fistula and graft failure. METHODS Discarded tissue segments were collected from(More)
Venous stenosis is a significant problem in arteriovenous fistulae, likely due to anatomical configuration and wall shear stress profiles. To identify linkages between wall shear stress and the magnitude and pattern of vascular stenosis, we produced curved and straight fistulae in a pig model. A complete wall stress profile was calculated for the curved(More)
Proton receptors are G protein-coupled receptors that accept protons as ligands and function as pH sensors. One of the proton receptors, GPR4, is relatively abundant in the kidney, but its potential role in acid-base homeostasis is unknown. In this study, we examined the distribution of GPR4 in the kidney, its function in kidney epithelial cells, and the(More)