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OBJECTIVE To assess knowledge, views, and behaviour of researchers on criteria for authorship and causes and control of gift authorship. DESIGN Interview survey of stratified sample of researchers. SETTING University medical faculty. SUBJECTS 66 staff (94% response rate) comprising several levels of university academic and research appointments. (More)
BACKGROUND The active practice of task-specific motor activities is a component of current approaches to stroke rehabilitation. OBJECTIVES To determine if repetitive task training after stroke improves global, upper or lower limb function, and if treatment effects are dependent on the amount, type or timing of practice. SEARCH STRATEGY We searched the(More)
BACKGROUND Urinary incontinence can affect 40-60% of people admitted to hospital after a stroke, with 25% still having problems on hospital discharge and 15% remaining incontinent at one year. OBJECTIVES To determine the optimal methods for treatment of urinary incontinence after stroke in adults. SEARCH STRATEGY We searched the Cochrane Incontinence(More)
Using primary nursing as a 'case study', this paper reviews research literature which attempts to measure the effectiveness of a mode of nursing using outcome measures. Previous research, it is argued, is hampered by a lack of conceptualization of structure and process and inadequate research design, with consequent uncertain findings. A shift in emphasis(More)
Assessing patients' satisfaction with the care they receive is assuming greater importance and satisfaction with nursing is no exception. The kinds of study in which patient satisfaction has been used as an outcome are considered and show the range of conceptualizations and the general lack of rigour in its measurement. It is argued that research methods(More)
OBJECTIVES To test the validity and reliability of scales for measuring patients' experiences of and satisfaction with nursing care; to test the ability of the scales to detect differences between hospitals and wards; and to investigate whether place of completion, hospital, or home influences response. DESIGN Sample survey. SETTING 20 wards in five(More)
BACKGROUND Radiological tests are often used by general practitioners (GPs). These tests can be overused and contribute little to clinical management. We aimed to assess two methods of reducing GP requests for radiological tests in accordance with the UK Royal College of Radiologists' guidelines on lumbar spine and knee radiographs. METHODS We assessed(More)
BACKGROUND Clinical practice guidelines aim to reduce inappropriate variations in practice and to promote the delivery of evidence-based health care. OBJECTIVES To identify and assess the effects of studies of the introduction of clinical practice guidelines in nursing (including health visiting), midwifery and other professions allied to medicine. (More)
BACKGROUND Although nursing, midwifery, and professions allied to medicine are increasingly using clinical guidelines to reduce inappropriate variations in practice and ensure higher quality care, there have been no rigorous overviews of their effectiveness, 18 evaluations of guidelines were identified that meet Cochrane criteria for scientific rigor. (More)