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Principles for Reducing Extraneous Processing in Multimedia Learning: Coherence, Signaling, Redundancy, Spatial Contiguity and Temporal Contiguity Principles.
The multimedia principle provides a context for work that examines when, how, why, and under what conditions the multimedia principle applies. Expand
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The relative benefits of learning by teaching and teaching expectancy
Abstract The purpose of this study was to explore the hypothesis that learning is enhanced through the act of teaching others. Specifically, two experiments aimed to disentangle the relative effectsExpand
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Eight Ways to Promote Generative Learning
Generative learning involves actively making sense of to-be-learned information by mentally reorganizing and integrating it with one’s prior knowledge, thereby enabling learners to apply what theyExpand
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Learning as a Generative Activity: Eight Learning Strategies that Promote Understanding
1. Introduction to learning as a generative activity 2. Learning by summarizing 3. Learning by mapping 4. Learning by drawing 5. Learning by imagining 6. Learning by self-testing 7. Learning byExpand
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Role of expectations and explanations in learning by teaching
The present study examined the role of preparing to teach (i.e., teaching expectancy) and actually teaching (i.e., explaining to others) on immediate and long-term learning. In Experiment 1,Expand
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Instructional strategies framework for military training systems
In an effort to improve training efficiency, the military has focused much attention on the development of replicable and generalizable training systems. Expand
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Spontaneous spatial strategy use in learning from scientific text
Abstract Two studies explored the role of the spontaneous use of spatial note-taking strategies (i.e., creating maps and drawings) and spatial ability in learning from a scientific passage. In StudyExpand
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Drawing Boundary Conditions for Learning by Drawing
Learning by drawing can be an effective strategy for supporting science text comprehension. However, drawing can also be cognitively demanding and time consuming, and students may not create qualityExpand
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Effects of Observing the Instructor Draw Diagrams on Learning from Multimedia Messages.
In 4 experiments, participants viewed a short video-based lesson about how the Doppler effect works. Some students viewed already-drawn diagrams while listening to a concurrent oral explanation,Expand
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The Definition, Assessment, and Mitigation of State Boredom Within Educational Settings: A Comprehensive Review
Mitigating the situational factors that give rise to state boredom is a consistent challenge facing educators. Despite the growing amount of literature devoted to the construct, the field has yet toExpand
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