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Very-long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (VLCAD) catalyzes the initial rate-limiting step in mitochondrial fatty acid beta-oxidation. VLCAD deficiency is clinically heterogenous, with three major phenotypes: a severe childhood form, with early onset, high mortality, and high incidence of cardiomyopathy; a milder childhood form, with later onset, usually with(More)
In this paper we report the identification of a new disorder of mitochondrial fatty acid beta-oxidation in a patient which presented with clear manifestations of a mitochondrial beta-oxidation disorder. Subsequent studies in fibroblasts revealed an impairment in palmitate beta-oxidation and in addition, a combined deficiency of long-chain enoyl-CoA(More)
The carnitine-acylcarnitine carrier (CAC) catalyzes the translocation of long-chain fatty acids across the inner mitochondrial membrane. We cloned and sequenced the human CAC cDNA, which has an open reading frame of 903 nucleotides. Northern blot studies revealed different expression levels of CAC in various human tissues. Furthermore, mutation analysis was(More)
Valproic acid (VPA; 2-n-propylpentanoic acid) is widely used as a major drug in the treatment of epilepsy and in the control of several types of seizures. Being a simple fatty acid, VPA is a substrate for the fatty acid β-oxidation (FAO) pathway, which takes place primarily in mitochondria. The toxicity of valproate has long been considered to be due(More)
We report on three patients (two siblings and one unrelated) presenting in infancy with progressive muscle weakness and paralysis of the diaphragm. Metabolic studies revealed a profile of plasma acylcarnitines and urine organic acids suggestive of a mild form of the multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenation defect (MADD, ethylmalonic/adipic acid syndrome).(More)
CONTEXT Short-chain acyl-coenzyme A (CoA) dehydrogenase (SCAD) deficiency (SCADD) is an autosomal recessive, clinically heterogeneous disorder with only 22 case reports published so far. Screening for SCADD is included in expanded newborn screening programs in most US and Australian states. OBJECTIVES To describe the genetic, biochemical, and clinical(More)
Mitochondrial trifunctional protein (MTP) is a recently identified enzyme involved in mitochondrial beta-oxidation, harboring long-chain enoyl-CoA hydratase, long-chain 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase (LCHAD) and long-chain 3-ketothiolase activity. A deficiency of this protein is associated with impaired oxidation of long-chain fatty acids which can lead to(More)
3-Methylglutaconic aciduria type I is an autosomal recessive disorder clinically characterized by various symptoms ranging from delayed speech development to severe neurological handicap. This disorder is caused by a deficiency of 3-methylglutaconyl-CoA hydratase, one of the key enzymes of leucine degradation. This results in elevated urinary levels of(More)
Only a single patient with 3-hydroxyisobutyryl-CoA hydrolase deficiency has been described in the literature, and the molecular basis of this inborn error of valine catabolism has remained unknown until now. Here, we present a second patient with 3-hydroxyisobutyryl-CoA hydrolase deficiency, who was identified through blood spot acylcarnitine analysis(More)