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Pain is unique among sensations in that the perceived intensity increases, or sensitizes, during exposure to a strong stimulus. One important mediator of sensitization is bradykinin (BK), a peptide released as a consequence of tissue damage. BK enhances the membrane ionic current activated by heat in nociceptive neurons, using a pathway that involves(More)
Following the initial identification of protein kinase C (PKC) by Nishizuka and co-workers in the late seventies, a wealth of information on this protein kinase has accumulated. Perhaps most striking was the realization that PKC is not just a single polypeptide but in fact consists of a large family of related proteins. These PKC isotypes are unique, not(More)
We have analysed the involvement of the beta isotype of the protein kinase C (PKC) family in the activation of NADPH oxidase in primary neutrophils. Using immunofluorescence and cell fractionation, PKC-beta is shown to be recruited to the plasma membrane upon stimulation with phorbol ester and to the phagosomal membrane upon phagocytosis of IgG-coated(More)
1994). Sensitization appears not to be initiated within the nociceptive neuron itself, as it is not observed in isolated neurons, but is triggered instead by extracellu-damaged or inflamed tissue (reviewed by Cesare and School of Biomedical Sciences McNaughton, 1997). Mediators known to cause sensiti-King's College London zation include (among others)(More)
Activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) by interleukin-6 (IL-6) involves phosphorylation of Tyr-705 and Ser-727, both of which are critical for STAT3 transactivation. Here, we demonstrate that IL-6 activates Rac-1 and SEK-1/MKK-4 of the stress-activated protein kinase pathway, as well as protein kinase Cdelta (PKCdelta), as(More)
Protein kinase C (PKC) is believed to have a crucial role in synaptic transmitter release and long-term potentiation. An important substrate of PKC in the brain is the neuron-specific presynaptically localized protein B-50 (also termed GAP-43, F1, pp46 or P-57). B-50 has been implicated in the regulation of polyphosphoinositide metabolism and calmodulin(More)
We studied the molecular events underlying K(+)-induced phosphorylation of the neuron-specific protein kinase C substrate B-50. Rat cortical synaptosomes were prelabelled with 32P-labelled orthophosphate. B-50 phosphorylation was measured by an immunoprecipitation assay. In this system, various phorbol esters, as well as a synthetic diacylglycerol(More)
Protein kinases play key roles in the induction by human interferon alpha (IFN-alpha) of specific gene expression and biological activity in various human cell lines. We now report that IFN-alpha increased the 7-kb transcript for the epsilon isotype of protein kinase C (PKC-epsilon) and the cellular content of PKC-epsilon 24 and 48 hr after IFN-alpha(More)
Breast cancer remains a significant scientific, clinical and societal challenge. This gap analysis has reviewed and critically assessed enduring issues and new challenges emerging from recent research, and proposes strategies for translating solutions into practice. More than 100 internationally recognised specialist breast cancer scientists, clinicians and(More)
BACKGROUND The protein kinase C (PKC) family of lipid-dependent serine/theonine kinases plays a central role in many intracellular eukaryotic signalling events. Members of the novel (delta, epsilon, eta, theta) subclass of PKC isotypes lack the Ca2+ dependence of the conventional PKC isotypes and have an N-terminal C2 domain, originally defined as V0(More)