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The Brown-Vialetto-Van Laere syndrome is a rare neurological disorder which may present at all ages with sensorineural deafness, bulbar palsy and respiratory compromise. Fazio-Londe syndrome is considered to be the same disease entity. Recently it was demonstrated that in some patients the disease is caused by mutations in the SLC52A3 gene which encodes the(More)
␣-Methylacyl-CoA racemase plays an important role in the ␤-oxidation of branched-chain fatty acids and fatty acid derivatives because it catalyzes the conversion of several (2 R)-methyl-branched-chain fatty acyl-CoAs to their (S)-stereoisomers. Only stereoisomers with the 2-methyl group in the (S)-configuration can be degraded via ␤-oxidation. Patients with(More)
Peroxisomes play a major role in human cellular lipid metabolism, including the beta-oxidation of fatty acids. The most frequent peroxisomal disorder is X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD), which is caused by mutations in the ABCD1 gene. The protein involved, called ABCD1, or alternatively ALDP, is a member of the ATP-binding-cassette (ABC) transporter(More)
INTRODUCTION Mucopolysaccharidosis type I (MPS I) is a progressive multisystem lysosomal storage disease caused by deficiency of the enzyme α-L-iduronidase (IDUA). Patients present with a continuous spectrum of disease severity, and the most severely affected patients (Hurler phenotype; MPS I-H) develop progressive cognitive impairment. The treatment of(More)
OBJECTIVE Sanfilippo disease (mucopolysaccharidosis type III [MPS III]) is a rare neurodegenerative metabolic disease caused by a deficiency of 1 of the 4 enzymes involved in the degradation of heparan sulfate (HS), a glycosaminoglycan (GAG). Genistein has been proposed as potential therapy but its efficacy remains uncertain. We aimed to determine the(More)
We report on three patients (two siblings and one unrelated) presenting in infancy with progressive muscle weakness and paralysis of the diaphragm. Metabolic studies revealed a profile of plasma acylcarnitines and urine organic acids suggestive of a mild form of the multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenation defect (MADD, ethylmalonic/adipic acid syndrome).(More)
Oxidation of fatty acids in mitochondria is a key physiological process in higher eukaryotes including humans. The importance of the mitochondrial beta-oxidation system in humans is exemplified by the existence of a group of genetic diseases in man caused by an impairment in the mitochondrial oxidation of fatty acids. Identification of patients with a(More)
BACKGROUND/AIMS Carnitine palmitoyl-transferase I (CPT I) catalyses the synthesis of long-chain (LC)-acylcarnitines from LC-acyl-CoA esters. It is the rate-limiting enzyme of mitochondrial fatty acid beta-oxidation (FAO) pathway and its activity is regulated by malonyl-CoA. The antiepileptic drug valproic acid (VPA) is a branched chain fatty acid that is(More)
BACKGROUND Zellweger spectrum disorders (ZSDs) are multisystem genetic disorders caused by a lack of functional peroxisomes, due to mutations in one of the PEX genes, encoding proteins involved in peroxisome biogenesis. The phenotypic spectrum of ZSDs ranges from an early lethal form to much milder presentations. In cultured skin fibroblasts from mildly(More)
Over the last years acylcarnitines have emerged as important biomarkers for the diagnosis of mitochondrial fatty acid beta-oxidation (mFAO) and branched-chain amino acid oxidation disorders assuming they reflect the potentially toxic acyl-CoA species, accumulating intramitochondrially upstream of the enzyme block. However, the origin of these intermediates(More)